Physical Characteristics of Functional Indigenous Farm-made Feeds Using Crude or Gelatinized Tapioca Starch as Sources of Energy


  • Omosowone O. O. Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, PMB 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria



The experiment compared the physical characteristics of aqua feed with crude or gelatinized tapioca starch as sources of energy. The bulk density (BD), water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), pellet durability index (PDI) and water stability (WS) were measured in both experimental diets. The results showed significant variations (p<0.05) in BD and WAI in diet with crude tapioca starch while non-significant variations (p>0.05) were recorded for WSI and WS in both diets. The higher BD of a diet, the better its ability in resisting external forces that can cause disintegration. A high BD also reduces ability to the feed material shrinking, thereby preventing loss to feed dust and fines. The results of WSI, WS and PDI of diets denotes that both pellets were water stable and could spend about same time in water but diet with gelatinized starch had a better water absorption index and pellet durability index. Furthermore, proximate composition of diets showed that diets with gelatinized starch had low moisture (9.04%), low fibre (5.24%), and higher ash (13.61%) and lipid (9.64%) contents. It can be concluded from this experiment that diets with gelatinized starch stands the chance of being a better functional feed for small-scale fish farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa.


Physical properties, Tapioca, Indigenous, Farm-made


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