Nanomedicine for SARS-CoV-2: Therapeutic and Prophylactic Approach in Immunocompromised Individuals
SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that first appeared in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and then spread all over the world, causing a global respiratory epidemic COVID-19 illness. Certain health conditions can increase your exposure to COVID-19, such as chronic obstructive lung disease, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The immune system of the host is severely compromised in the event of a respiratory viral infection. Immunocompromised patients have a more difficult time avoiding respiratory viral infections, making them more vulnerable to COVID-19 pneumonia and increasing the death rate to 19%. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to damage the host cell by modifying its own DNA or RNA and proliferating inside the host cell, with antiviral treatments and prophylactic vaccinations being tested. In recent years, numerous innovative technologies have been examined to diagnose, prevent and treat viral infections. Nano technology opens the way to distinguish the living cell mechanisms and develop new technologies that make it possible to diagnose and cure various viral infections in the early stage. The therapeutic and preventative approaches of nanomedicine are essential factors for curing SARS-CoV-2. The delivery of antiviral drugs based on nanocarrier, changes in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, leading in dose reduction, reductions in toxicity, increased bioavailability, and the prevention of the virus. The overall efficiency and safety of vaccinated adjuvant vaccine nanoparticles (VANs) helps enhance the immune response of older, immunocompromised persons with the greatest death rate of SARS-CoV-2. The review focuses on recent advancements in nanomedicine treatments and prevention strategies for SARS-CoV-2.
Keywords:Vaccine-adjuvant nanoparticles；SARS-CoV-2；Morphology；Pathogenicity；Immune response；Nanomedicine；Therapeutics；Drug entry
 Rajbari M, Rajbari N., and Faridpur F. (2018): Morbidity, and mortality due to Nipah or Nipah-like virus encephalitis in WHO South-East Asia Region Country, India. Sci. Rep., 6: 25359.
 Lopez-Diez E, Perez S, Carballo M, Inarrea A, de la Orden A, Castro M, et al. (2017): Lifestyle factors and oncogenic papillomavirus infection in a highrisk male population. PLoS One.
 Fuller TL., Calvet G., Estevam CG., Angelo JR., Abiodun GJ., Halai UA, et al. (2015): Behavioral, climatic, and environmental risk factors for Zika and chikungunya virus infections in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil -16.
 Baharoon S. and Memish ZA. (2019): MERSCoV as an emerging respiratory illness: A review of prevention methods travel Med. Infect. Dis., 32: 101520.
 Basma H Marghani (2020): COVID-19 Immunotherapy: Novel Humanized 47D11 Monoclonal Antibody. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res, 29 (4).
 Lu H. (2020): Drug treatment options for the 2019- new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Biosci Trends 14(1): 69-71.
 Chen YM., Liang SY., Shih YP., et al. (2006): Epidemiological and genetic correlates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in the hospital with the highest nosocomial infection rate in Taiwan in 2003, J. Clin. Microbiol., 44: 359-365.
 Wu JT., Leung K., Leung GM. (2020): Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: a modelling study Lancet.
 Wang D et al. (2020): Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China JAMA, 323 (11): 1061.
 Guo YR et al. (2020): The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak - an update on the status Mil. Med. Res., 7 (1): 11.
 Fan YY., Huang ZT., Li L., et al. (2009): Characterization of SARS-CoV-specific memory T cells from recovered individuals 4 years after infection Arch. Virol., 154: 1093-1099.
 Ogimi C et al. (2017): Clinical Significance of Human Coronavirus in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples from Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients and Patients with Hematologic Malignancies Clin. Infect. Dis., 64 (11): 1532-1539.
 Hakim H et al. (2016): Acute Respiratory Infections in Children and Adolescents with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cancer, 122 (5): 798.
 Chakravarty, Malobika, and Amisha Vora (2020): “Nanotechnology-based antiviral therapeutics.” Drug delivery and translational research, 1-40.
 Zhou P., Yang XL., X.G., Wang, et al. (2020): A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin Nature.
 Xiaowei Li., Manman Geng., Yizhao Peng., Liesu Meng. and Shemin Lu. (2020): Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID-19, Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis, 10 (2).
 Dhama K, Khan S, Tiwari R, Sircar S, Bhat S, et al. (2020): Coronavirus Disease 2019-COVID-19. Clin Microbiol Rev. 24; 33(4): e00028-20.
 Wit E de., Doremalen N van., Falzarano D, et al. (2016): SARS and MERS: recent insights into emerging coronaviruses Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 14: 523-534.
 Gorbalenya AE., Baker SC., Baric RS., Groot PR., Drosten C., et al. (2020): Sever acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: the species and its viruses- a statement of the coronavirus study group. Nature Microbiology 5: 536-544.
 Wu, JT., Leung K., Bushman M., Kishore N., Niehus R., de Salazar PM., Cowling BJ., Lipsitch M., Leung GM. (2020): Estimating Clinical Severity of COVID-19 from the Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan. Nat. Med. 26: 506- 510.
 Dash, P., Mohapatra, S., Ghosh, S., & Nayak, B. (2021): A scoping insight on potential prophylactics,vaccines, and therapeutic weaponry for the ongoing novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic- A comprehensive review. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11.
 Fehr AR. and Perlman S. (2015): Coronaviruses: an overview of their replication and pathogenesis Methods Mol. Biol., 1282: 1-23.
 Chinese SARS Molecular Epidemiology Consortium Chinese Molecular evolution of the SARS coronavirus during the SARS epidemic in China Science (2004), 303: 1666-1669.
 Huang C., Wang Y., Li X., et al. (2020): Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China Lancet.
 Peiris JS., Guan Y. and Yuen KY. (2004): Severe acute respiratory syndrome Nat. Med., 10: S88-S97.
 Chinchar VG. (1999): Replication of viruses. Encycl Virol [Internet]. Elsevier; 1471-8.
 Baron S. and Fons M AT. (1996): Viral pathogenesis medical microbiology. 4th edn. S, Baron.
 Rouse BT. and Sehrawat S. (2010): Immunity and immunopathology to viruses: what decides the outcome? Nat Rev Immunol. 10:514-26.
 Simmons G., Reeves JD., Rennekamp AJ., et al. (2004): Characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike glycoprotein-mediated viral entry Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 101: 4240-4245.
 Kuba K., Imai Y., Ohto-Nakanishi, et al. (2010): Trilogy of ACE2: a peptidase in the renin-angiotensin system, a SARS receptor, and a partner for amino acid transporters Pharmacol Ther., 128: 119-128.
 Perlman S, and Netland J. (2009): Coronaviruses post-SARS: update on replication and pathogenesis Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 77: 439-450.
 Channappanavar R. and Perlman S. (2017): Pathogenic human coronavirus infections: causes and consequences of cytokine storm and immunopathology.
 Min CK., Cheon S., NY., Ha, et al. (2016): Comparative and kinetic analysis of viral shedding and immunological responses in MERS patients representing a broad spectrum of disease severity.
 Kazuya Shirato, Naganori Nao, Harutaka Katano, Ikuyo Takayama, Shinji Saito, et al. (2020): Development of Genetic Diagnostic Methods for Detection for Novel Coronavirus 2019 (nCoV-2019) in Japan, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, 73 (4): 304-307.
 Liu J, Wu P, Gao F, Qi J, Kawana-Tachikawa A, et al. (2010): Novel immunodominant peptide presentation strategy: a featured HLA-A 2402-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope stabilized by intrachain hydrogen bonds from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein. J Virol. 84(22): 11849-57.
 li YM., Liang SY., Shih YP., et al. (2006): Epidemiological and genetic correlates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in the hospital with the highest nosocomial infection rate in Taiwan in 2003, J. Clin. Microbiol., 44: 359-365.
 Hajeer AH., Balkhy H., Johani S., et al. (2016): Association of human leukocyte antigen class II alleles with severe Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus infection Ann. Thorac. Med., 11: 211-213.
 Tu X., Chong WP., Zhai Y., et al. (2015): Functional polymorphisms of the CCL2 and MBL genes cumulatively increase susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection, J. Infect., 71: 101-109.
 Li G., Chen X. and Xu A. (2003): Profile of specific antibodies to the SARS-associated coronavirus N. Engl. J. Med., 349: 508-509.
 Xu Z., Shi L., Wang Y., et al. (2020): Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome Lancet Resp. Med. 2600(20): 30076-X.
 Huang C., Wang Y., Li X., et al. (2020): Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China Lancet.
 Chaudhuri A. (2002): Diagnosis and treatment of viral encephalitis. Postgrad Med J. 78: 575-83.
 Bule M., Khan F. and Niaz K. (2019): Antivirals: past, present and future. Recent Adv Anim Virol. Singapore: Springer Singapore, 425-46.
 Adalja A. and Inglesby T. (2019): Broad-spectrum antiviral agents: a crucial pandemic tool. Expert Rev Anti-Infect Ther. 17:467-70.
 Gerber JG. (2000): Using pharmacokinetics to optimize antiretroviral drug-drug interactions in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 30: S123-9.
 Singh R., Lilliard JW. and Jr. (2009): Nanoparticle-based targeted drug delivery. Exp Mol Pathol. 86: 215-223.
 Strasfeld L. and Chou S. (2010): Antiviral drug resistance: mechanisms and clinical implications. Infect Dis Clin N Am. 24: 413-37.
 Villanueva-Flores F., Castro-Lugo A., Ramírez OT. and Palomares LA. (2020): Understanding cellular interactions with nanomaterials: towards a rational design of medical nanodevices. Nanotechnology. 31:132002.
 Cojocaru FD., Botezat D., Gardikiotis I., Uritu CM., Dodi G., Trandafir L. (2020): et al. Nanomaterials designed for antiviral drug delivery transport across biological barriers. Pharmaceutics. 12:171.
 Blecher K., Nasir A and. Friedman A. (2011): The growing role of nanotechnology in combating infectious disease. Virulence. 2:395-401.
 Petros RA. and DeSimone JM. (2010): Strategies in the Design of Nanoparticles for Therapeutic Applications. Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery, 9: 615- 627.
 Siccardi M., Martin P., McDonald TO., Liptrott N J., et al. (2013): Research Spotlight: Nanomedicines for HIV Therapy. Ther. Delivery, 4: 153- 156.
 Lembo D., Donalisio M., Civra A., Argenziano M. and Cavalli R. (2018): Nanomedicine Formulations for the Delivery of Antiviral Drugs: A Promising Solution for the Treatment of Viral Infections. Expert Opin. Drug Delivery, 15: 93- 114.
 Luo C., Sun J., Sun B. and He Z. (2014): Prodrug-Based Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery Strategies for Cancer Therapy. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 35: 556- 566.
 Gadde S. (2015): Multi-Drug Delivery Nanocarriers for Combination Therapy. MedChemComm 2015, 6, 1916- 1929.
 Kraft JC., Mc Connachie LA., Koehn J., Kinman L., Sun J., et al. (2018): Mechanism-Based Pharmacokinetic (MBPK) Models Describe the Complex Plasma Kinetics of Three Antiretrovirals Delivered by a Long-Acting Anti-HIV Drug Combination Nanoparticle Formulation. J. Controlled Release, 27: 229- 241.
 Jayant RD., Tiwari S., Atluri V., Kaushik A., Tomitaka A., et al. (2018): Multifunctional Nanotherapeutics for the Treatment of NeuroAIDS in Drug Abusers. Sci. Rep. 8: 12991.
 Widjaja, I. et al. (2019): Towards a solution to MERS: protective human monoclonal antibodies targeting different domains and functions of the MERS-coronavirus spike glycoprotein. Emerg. Microbes Infect, 8: 516-530.
 Barnes, C.O., Jette, C.A., Abernathy, M.E. et al. (2020): SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody structures inform therapeutic strategies. Nature 588, 682- 687.
 Zhang, X., Tan, Y., Ling, Y. et al. (2020): Viral and host factors related to the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Nature 583, 437-440.
 Shin MD et al. (2020): “COVID-19 vaccine development and a potential nanomaterial path forward,” Nature Nanotechnology. Nature Research. Semin. Immunopathology., 39: 529-539.
 Kang SH., Hong SJ., Lee YK. and Cho, S. (2018): Oral vaccine delivery for intestinal immunity-biological basis, barriers, delivery system, and M cell targeting polymers, 10 (9).
 Hansen L., De Beer T., Pierre K., Pastoret S., et al. (2015): Biotechnol rog., 31 (4): 1107-1118.
 Gallucci S., Lolkema M. and Matzinger P. (1999): Natural adjuvants: endogenous activators of dendritic cells. Nat Med 5: 1249-1255.
 Irvine, D. J., Hanson, M. C., Rakhra, K. and Tokatlian, T. (2015): Synthetic Nanoparticles for Vaccines and Immunotherapy. Chemical reviews, 115(19), 11109-11146.
 Franceschi C., Bonafè M., Valensin S., Olivieri F., et al. (2000): An Evolutionary Perspective on Immunosenescence. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 908: 244- 254.
 Fulop T., Larbi A., Kotb R., de Angelis F. and Pawelec G. (2011): Aging, Immunity, and Cancer. Discovery Med. 11: 537- 550.
 Weinberger B. (2018): Adjuvant strategies to improve vaccination of the elderly population. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2018 Aug; 41:34-41.
 Cunningham AL, Garçon N, Leo O, Friedland LR, Strugnell R, (2016): Vaccine development: From concept to early clinical testing. Vaccine. 20; 34(52): 6655-6664.
Copyright and Licensing
The authors shall retain the copyright of their work but allow the Publisher to publish, copy, distribute, and convey the work.
Journal of Human Physiology publishes accepted manuscripts under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0). Authors who submit their papers for publication by Journal of Human Physiology agree to have the CC BY-NC 4.0 license applied to their work, and that anyone is allowed to reuse the article or part of it free of charge for non-commercial use. As long as you follow the license terms and original source is properly cited, anyone may copy, redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material.
License Policy for Reuse of Third-Party Materials
If a manuscript submitted to the journal contains the materials which are held in copyright by a third-party, authors are responsible for obtaining permissions from the copyright holder to reuse or republish any previously published figures, illustrations, charts, tables, photographs, and text excerpts, etc. When submitting a manuscript, official written proof of permission must be provided and clearly stated in the cover letter.
The editorial office of the journal has the right to reject/retract articles that reuse third-party materials without permission.
Journal Policies on Data Sharing
We encourage authors to share articles published in our journal to other data platforms, but only if it is noted that it has been published in this journal.