An Insight into Different Strategies for Control and Prophylaxis of Fasciolosis: A Review


  • Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan KBCMA College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Narowal sub campus UVAS, Lahore
  • Muhammad Sohail Sajid Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad
  • Haider Abbas Section of Parasitology, Department of Pathobiology, KBCMA College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Narowal, Sub-campus UVAS, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Sadia Ghazanfer Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Mamoona Arshad Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan



Fasciolosis is one of the important diseases of livestock and has zoonotic importance. Fasciolosis can cause huge economic losses due to decrease in milk and meat production, decreased feed conversion ratio, and cost of treatment. Treatment and prophylaxis strategies for Fasciola infection are formed based on epidemiological data. The control of Fasciola infection can be attained by treating the animals with active anthelmintics. The use of different combinations of anthelmintics with a possible rotation is more effective against immature as well as adult flukes. Control of the intermediate host (snail) is vital for the reduction of fasciolosis. Due to the rapid growth of snails, the eradication is quite difficult in waterlogged and marshy areas. The use of different grazing methods and treatment of grazing areas can also help to control fasciolosis. A variety of antigens generated by Fasciola spp. have been shown to protect against liver fluke infection. The crude antigens, excretory/secretory, and refined antigens and their combination can be used as prophylactic treatment for the control of fasciolosis. The use of any of the single or combination of these methods can be very effective for the control of fasciolosis.


Fasciolosis; Control; Chemotherapy; Grazing management; Prophylactic treatment


[1] Spithill, T.W., Dalton, J.P., 1998. Progress in development of liver fluke vaccines. Parasitology Today. 14, 224-228. DOI:

[2] Yilma, J., Malone, J.B., 1998. A geographical information System forecast model for strategic control of fasciolosis in Ethiopia. Veterinary Parasitology. 78, 103-127. DOI:

[3] Parr, S.L., Gray, J.S., 2000. A strategic dosing scheme for the control of fasciolosis in cattle and

[4] sheep in Ireland. Veterinary Parasitology. 88, 187- 197. DOI:

[5] Khan, M.N., Sajid, M.S., Rizwan, H.M., et al., 2017. Comparative efficacy of six anthelmintic treatments against natural infection of fasciola species in sheep. Pakistan Veterinary Journal. 37, 65-68.

[6] Hossain, M., Paul, S., Rahman, M., et al., 2011. Prevalence and economic significance of caprine fascioliasis at Sylhet district of Bangladesh. Pakistan Veterinary Journal. 31(2), 113-116.

[7] Ahmed, E.F., Markvichitr, K., Tumwasorn, S., et al., 2007. Prevalence of Fasciola spp infections of sheep in the Middle awash River Basin, Ethiopia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 38(1), 51-57.

[8] Wang, C.R., Qiu, J.H., Zhu, X.H., et al., 2006. Survey of helminths in adult sheep in Heilongjiang Province, People’s Republic of China. Veterinary Parasitology, 140(3-4), 378-382. DOI:

[9] Garg, R., Yadav, C.L., Kumar, R.R., et al., 2009. The epidemiology of fasciolosis in ruminants in different geo-climatic regions of north India. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 41(8), 1695-1700. DOI:

[10] Kumari, S., Sinha, S.R.P., Sinha, S., et al., 2010. Incidence of gastrointestinal helminthosis in sheep and goats in Patna (Bihar). Journal of Veterinary Parasitology. 24(1), 97-99.

[11] Kuerpick, B., Schnieder, T., Strube, C., 2012. Seasonal pattern of Fasciola hepatica antibodies in dairy herds in Northern Germany. Parasitology Research. 111(3), 1085-1092. DOI:

[12] Schweizer, G., Braun, U., Deplazes, P., et al., 2005. Estimating the financial losses due to bovine fasciolosis in Switzerland. Veterinary Research. 157(7), 188-193. DOI:

[13] Kadir, M.A., Ali, N.H., Ridha, R.G.M., 2012. Prevalence of helminthes, pneumonia and hepatitis in Kirkuk slaughter house, Kirkuk, Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Science. 26, 83-88. DOI:

[14] Kaplan, M., Başpınar, S., 2009. Incidence of fasciolosis in animals slaughtered in Elâzığ during last five years period and its economic significance. Fırat Medical Journal. 14(1), 025-027.

[15] Degheidy, N.S., Al-Malki, S.J., 2012. Epidemiological studies of fasciolosis in human and animals at Taif, Saudi Arabia. World Applied Sciences Journal. 19(8), 1099-1104. DOI:

[16] Tum, S., Puotinen, M.L., Skerratt, L.F., et al., 2007. Validation of a geographic information system model for mapping the risk of fasciolosis in cattle and buffaloes in Cambodia. Veterinary Parasitology. 143(3- 4), 364-367. DOI:

[17] Mehmood, K., Zhang, H., Sabir, A.J., et al., 2017. A review on epidemiology, global prevalence and economical losses of fasciolosis in ruminants. Microbial Pathogenesis. 109, 253-262. DOI:

[18] Olkowski, W., Daar, S., Olkowski, H., 2013. The Gardener’s Guide to Common-Sense Pest Control. Newton: Taunton Press.

[19] El-Nour, M.F.A., 2021. Evaluation of molluscicidal, miracicidal and cercaricidal activities of crude aqueous extracts of Origanum majorana, Ziziphus spina-christi and Salvia fruticosa on Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries. 25(2), 913- 933. DOI:

[20] Christensen, C.C., Cowie, R.H., Yeung, N.W., et al., 2021. Biological control of pest non-marine molluscs: A pacific perspective on risks to non-target organisms. Insects. 12(7), 583. DOI:

[21] Chawech, R., Njeh, F., Hamed, N., et al., 2017. Study of the molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) leaf extract and its main cucurbitacins against the mollusc Galba truncatula, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica. Pest Management Science. 73(7), 1473-1477. DOI:

[22] de Vasconcellos, M.C., de Amorim, A., 2003. Molluscicidal action of the latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. (“Christ’s Crown”) (Euphorbiaceae) against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematode: Fasciolidae): 1- test in laboratory. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 98(4), 557-563. DOI:

[23] El-Sayed, M.M., El-Nahas, H.A., 1997. Evaluation of the molluscicidal activities of Atriplex stylosa and Agave ferox. Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Assiut University). 20(2), 105-112. DOI:

[24] Labe, Y., Inabo, H.I., Yakubu, S.E., 2012. Comparative molluscicidal activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Zingiber officinale against Bulinus globosus. Advances in Environmental Biology. 6(2), 831- 835.

[25] Al-Ghannam, S.M., Ahmed, H.H., Zein, N., et al., 2013. Antitumor activity of balanitoside extracted from Balanites aegyptiaca fruit. Journal of Applied 12 Pharmaceutical Science. 3(7), 179-191. DOI:

[26] Asemota, A., Hassan, A., Idu, M., 2015. Preliminary screening of some Nigerian medicinal plants for molluscicidal activities. Biology. 4, 24-33.

[27] Al-Sarar, A., Hussein, H., Abobakr, Y., et al., 2012. Molluscicidal activity of methomyl and cardenolide extracts from Calotropis procera and Adenium arabicum against the land snail Monacha cantiana. Molecules. 17(5), 5310-5318. DOI:

[28] Abdalla, M.A., El-Malik, K.H., Bayoumi, R.A., 2011. Application of some aqueous plant extracts as molluscicidal agents on Bulinus truncatus snails in Sudan. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research. 1, 108-117.

[29] Wang, Z.Y., Du, Y.Q., Qin, Y.Z., et al., 2009. Molluscicidal activity of methanol extracts of Jatropha curcas leaves against Ampullaria gigas. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 29(6), 1235-1237.

[30] Rug, M., Ruppel, A., 2000. Toxic activities of the plant Jatropha curcas against intermediate snail hosts and larvae of schistosomes. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 5(6), 423-430. DOI:

[31] Khatun, F., Maruf, A., Rahman, M.M., et al., 2021. Incidence of gastrointestinal parasitism in cattle in Gazipur, Bangladesh. Veterinary Sciences: Research and Reviews. 7(2), 109-114. DOI:

[32] Alvarez, L.I., Lanusse, C.E., Williams, D.J.L., et al., 2021. Flukicidal Drugs: Pharmaco-Therapeutics and Drug Resistance. Fasciolosis 211. CABI. DOI:

[33] Maqbool, A., Hayat, C.S., Tanveer, A., 2004. Comparative efficacy of various indigenous and allopathic drugs against fasciolosis in buffaloes. Veterinary Archives. 74(2), 107-114.

[34] Kouadio, J.N., Evack, J.G., Achi, L.Y., et al., 2021. Efficacy of triclabendazole and albendazole against Fasciola Spp. infection in cattle in Côte d’Ivoire: A randomised blinded trial. Acta Tropica. 222, 106039. DOI:

[35] Elliott, T.P., Kelley, J.M., Rawlin, G., et al., 2015. High prevalence of fasciolosis and evaluation of drug efficacy against Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle in the Maffra and Bairnsdale districts of Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. Veterinary Parasitology. 209(1-2), 117-124. DOI:

[36] Novobilský, A., Solis, N.A., Skarin, M., et al., 2016. Assessment of flukicide efficacy against Fasciola hepatica in sheep in Sweden in the absence of a standardised test. International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance. 6(3), 141-147. DOI:

[37] Nzalawahe, J., Hannah, R., Kassuku, A.A., et al., 2018. Evaluating the effectiveness of trematocides against Fasciola gigantica and amphistomes infections in cattle, using faecal egg count reduction tests in Iringa Rural and Arumeru Districts, Tanzania. Parasites & Vectors. 11(1), 1-9. DOI:

[38] Walker, S.M., Makundi, A.E., Namuba, F.V., et al., 2008. The distribution of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica within southern Tanzania–constraints associated with the intermediate host. Parasitology. 135(4), 495-503. DOI: https://doi:10.1017/S0031182007004076

[39] Babiker, A.E., Osman, A.Y., Adam, A.A., et al., 2012. Efficacy of oxyclozanide against Fasciola gigantica infection in sheep under Sudan condition. Sudan Journal of Veterinary Research. 27, 43-47.

[40] Greter, H., Batil, A.A., Alfaroukh, I.O., et al., 2016. Re-infection with Fasciola gigantica 6-month post-treatment with triclabendazole in cattle from mobile pastoralist husbandry systems at Lake Chad. Veterinary Parasitology. 230, 43-48. DOI:

[41] Ortiz, P., Scarcella, S., Cerna, C., et al., 2013. Resistance of Fasciola hepatica against Triclabendazole in cattle in Cajamarca (Peru): a clinical trial and an in vivo efficacy test in sheep. Veterinary Parasitology. 195(1-2), 118-121. DOI:

[42] Borgsteede, F.H.M., Taylor, S.M., Gaasenbeek, C.P.H., et al., 2008. The efficacy of an ivermectin/ closantel injection against experimentally induced infections and field infections with gastrointestinal nematodes and liver fluke in cattle. Veterinary Parasitology. 155(3-4), 235-241. DOI:

[43] Olaechea, F., Lovera, V., Larroza, M., et al., 2011. Resistance of Fasciola hepatica against triclabendazole in cattle in Patagonia (Argentina). Veterinary Parasitology. 178(3-4), 364-366. DOI:

[44] Gilleard, J.S., Kotze, A.C., Leathwick, D., et al., 2021. A journey through 50 years of research relevant to the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminant livestock and thoughts on future directions. International Journal for Parasitology. 51(13-14), 1133-1151. 13 DOI:

[45] Zerna, G., Spithill, T.W., Beddoe, T., 2021. Current status for controlling the overlooked caprine fasciolosis. Animals. 11(6), 1819. DOI:

[46] Fausto, G.C., Fausto, M.C., Vieira, I.S., et al., 2021. Formulation of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in the control of equine gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes. Veterinary Parasitology. 295, 109458. DOI:

[47] Altuğ, N., Başbuğan, Y., Yuksek, N., 2022. Changes in serum adenosine deaminase and isoenzyme levels in addition to routine liver biochemical parameters in sheep with chronic fascioliasis. Ciência Rural. 52, e20210152. DOI:

[48] Rizwan, H.M., Sajid, M.S., Abbas, H., et al., 2021. Epidemiology, burden and seasonal variation of fasciolosis determined through faecal examination and excretory/secretory antigens-based ELISA. Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society. 72(4), 3449-3454.

[49] DOI:

[50] Andleeb, A., Bisen, S., Lall, R., et al., 2021. Cloning and expression of Fasciola gigantica cathepsin-B recombinant proteins. Indian Journal of Animal Research. 55(3), 333-339. DOI:

[51] Barbour, T., Cwiklinski, K., Lalor, R., et al., 2021. The zoonotic helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica: virulence-associated cathepsin B and cathepsin L cysteine peptidases secreted by infective newly excysted juveniles (NEJ). Animals. 11(12), 3495. DOI:

[52] Spithill, T.W., Toet, H., Rathinasamy, V., et al., 2021. Vaccines for Fasciola (liver fluke): New Thinking for an Old Problem In: Fasciolosis 379. CABI.

[53] Singh, D.K., Singh, V.K., Singh, R.N., et al., 2021. Fasciolosis Control In: Fasciolosis: Causes, Challenges and Controls. Springer. pp. 65-73.

[54] Law, R.H.P., Smooker, P.M., Irving, J.A., et al., 2003. Cloning and expression of the major secreted cathepsin B-like protein from juvenile Fasciola hepatica and analysis of immunogenicity following liver fluke infection. American Society for Microbiology Infection and Immunity. 71(12), 6921-6932. DOI:

[55] Buffoni, L., Martínez-Moreno, F.J., Zafra, R., et al., 2012. Humoral immune response in goats immunised with cathepsin L1, peroxiredoxin and Sm14 antigen and experimentally challenged with Fasciola hepatica. Veterinary Parasitology. 185(2-4), 315-321. DOI:

[56] Pacheco, I.L., Abril, N., Morales-Prieto, N., et al., 2017. Th1/Th2 balance in the liver and hepatic lymph nodes of vaccinated and unvaccinated sheep during acute stages of infection with Fasciola hepatica. Veterinary Parasitology. 238, 61-65. DOI:

[57] Pérez-Écija, R.A., Mendes, R.E., Zafra, R., et al., 2010. Pathological and parasitological protection in goats immunised with recombinant cathepsin L1 and challenged with Fasciola hepatica. The Veterinary Journal. 185(3), 351-353. DOI:

[58] Mendes, R.E., Pérez-Écija, R.A., Zafra, R., et al., 2010. Evaluation of hepatic changes and local and systemic immune responses in goats immunized with recombinant Peroxiredoxin (Prx) and challenged with Fasciola hepatica. Vaccine. 28(16), 2832-2840. DOI:

[59] Acosta, D., Cancela, M., Piacenza, L., et al., 2008. Fasciola hepatica leucine aminopeptidase, a promising candidate for vaccination against ruminant fasciolosis. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. 158(1), 52-64. DOI:

[60] Maggioli, G., Acosta, D., Silveira, F., et al., 2011. The recombinant gut-associated M17 leucine aminopeptidase in combination with different adjuvants confers a high level of protection against Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep. Vaccine. 29(48), 9057- 9063.

[61] DOI:

[62] Golden, O., Flynn, R.J., Read, C., et al., 2010. Protection of cattle against a natural infection of Fasciola hepatica by vaccination with recombinant cathepsin L1 (rFhCL1). Vaccine. 28(34), 5551-5557. DOI:

[63] López-Abán, J., Nogal-Ruiz, J.J., Vicente, B., et al., 2008. The addition of a new immunomodulator with the adjuvant adaptation ADAD system using fatty acid binding proteins increases the protection against Fasciola hepatica. Veterinary Parasitology. 153(1-2),

[64] -181. DOI:

[65] Kumar, N., Anju, V., Gaurav, N., et al., 2012. Vaccination of buffaloes with Fasciola gigantica recombinant glutathione S-transferase and fatty acid binding protein. Parasitology Research. 110(1), 419-426. DOI:

[66] Raina, O.K., Nagar, G., Varghese, A., et al., 2011. Lack of protective efficacy in buffaloes vaccinated 14 with Fasciola gigantica leucine aminopeptidase and peroxiredoxin recombinant proteins. Acta Tropica. 118(3), 217-222. DOI:

[67] Dewilde, S., Ioanitescu, A.I. Kiger, L., et al., 2008. The hemoglobins of the trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Paramphistomum epiclitum: A molecular biological, physico-chemical, kinetic, and vaccination study. Protein Science. 17(10), 1653-1662.

[68] Villa-Mancera, A., Reynoso-Palomar, A., Utrera-Quintana, F., et al., 2014. Cathepsin L1 mimotopes with adjuvant Quil A induces a Th1/Th2 immune response and confers significant protection against Fasciola hepatica infection in goats. Parasitology Research. 113(1), 243-250. DOI:

[69] Zafra, R., Buffoni, L., Martínez-Moreno, A., et al., 2008. A study of the liver of goats immunized with a synthetic peptide of the Sm14 antigen and challenged with Fasciola hepatica. Journal of Comparative Pathology. 139(4), 169-176. DOI:


How to Cite

Rizwan, H. M., Sajid, M. S., Abbas, H., Ghazanfer, S., & Arshad, M. (2022). An Insight into Different Strategies for Control and Prophylaxis of Fasciolosis: A Review. Journal of  Advances in International Veterinary Research, 4(1), 5–14.


Article Type



Download data is not yet available.