Organizational Justice and Gender Equity: The Contingent Effect of Islamic Work Ethics


  • Qaisar Iqbal Centre of China-India-Pakistan Studies, Sichuan University of Science & Engineering, Zigong, Sichuan, China



Organizations are facing challenges to cope with gender equity in the presence of a diverse workforce. The present study investigates the moderating impact of Islamic work ethics on the organizational justicegender equity relationship. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to employees working in a large private university in a State of Qatar. This study collected data from 250 employees with 66.12% response rate. The present study employed structural equation modelling to analyse data in SmartPLS 3.0 and SPSS version 24. Empirical findings revealed the significant relationship of distributive justice and interactional justice with gender equity. Procedural justice did not relate to gender equity. Furthermore, Islamic work ethics also moderated the relationship of interactional justice with gender equity. Limitations and implications have been added at the end of paper. This study is first in its nature revealing the conditional factor of Islamic work ethics on the organizational justicegender equity relationship.


Islamic work ethics, Distributive justice, Procedural justice, Interactional justice, Gender equality, Fairness, Equality, Islamic country, Quantitative


[1] London M, Bear JB, Cushenbery L, Sherman GD. Leader support for gender equity: Understanding prosocial goal orientation, leadership motivation, and power sharing. Hum Resour Manag Rev. 2019;29(3):418-27.

[2] Iqbal Q, Ahmad NH. Sustainable development: The colors of sustainable leadership in learning organization. Sustain Dev. 2020;2019-21.

[3] Tate G, Yang L. Female leadership and gender equity: Evidence from plant closure. J financ econ. 2015;117(1):77-97.

[4] Matsa DA, Miller AR. Chipping away at the glass ceiling: Gender spillovers in corporate leadership. Am Econ Rev. 2011;101(3):635-9.

[5] Ridgeway CL. Framed by gender: How gender inequality persists in the modern world. Oxford University Press; 2011.

[6] Anderson DM, Shinew KJ. Gender equity in the context of organizational justice: A closer look at a reoccurring issue in the field. J Leis Res. 2003;35(2):228- 47.

[7] Kreitz PA. Best practices for managing organizational diversity. J Acad Librariansh. 2008;34(2):101-20.

[8] Kim D. Equity sensitivity theory: Exploring gender differences in a collectivistic culture. Capella University; 2009.

[9] Anderson PS. Re-visioning gender in philosophy of religion: Reason, love and epistemic locatedness. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.; 2012.

[10] Henderson K, Grappendorf H, Bruton C, Tomas S. The status of women in the parks and recreation profession in the United States. World Leis J.2013;55(1):58-71.

[11] Heponiemi T, Kuusio H, Sinervo T, Elovainio M. Job attitudes and well-being among public vs. private physicians: organizational justice and job control as mediators. Eur J Public Health. 2011;21(4):520-5.

[12] Nadiri H, Tanova C. An investigation of the role of justice in turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior in hospitality industry. Int J Hosp Manag. 2010;29(1):33-41.

[13] Gillet N, Fouquereau E, Bonnaud-Antignac A, Mokounkolo R, Colombat P. The mediating role of organizational justice in the relationship between transformational leadership and nurses’ quality of work life: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013;50(10):1359-67.

[14] Bagtasos MR. Quality of work life: A review of literature. DLSU Bus Econ Rev. 2011;20(2):1-8.

[15] Metcalfe BD. Gender and human resource management in the Middle East. Int J Hum Resour Manag. 2007;18(1):54-74.

[16] Iqbal Q. The era of environmental sustainability: Ensuring that sustainability stands on human resource management. Glob Bus Rev. 2020;21(2):377-91.

[17] Budhwar PS, Mellahi K. Introduction: Islam and human resource management. Pers Rev. 2010.

[18] Mohammad J, Quoquab F. Furthering the thought on Islamic work ethic: how does it differ? J Islam Mark. 2016.

[19] Mohammad J, Quoquab F, Idris F, Al-Jabari M, Hussin N, Wishah R. The relationship between Islamic work ethic and workplace outcome. Pers Rev. 2018.

[20] Notz WW, Starke FA. Arbitration and distributive justice: Equity or equality? J Appl Psychol. 1987;72(3):359.

[21] Adams JS. Inequity in social exchange. In: Advances in experimental social psychology. Elsevier; 1965. p. 267-99.

[22] Colquitt JA, Greenberg J. Organizational justice: A fair assessment of the state of the literature. 2003.

[23] Barsky A, Kaplan SA. If you feel bad, it’s unfair: A quantitative synthesis of affect and organizational justice perceptions. J Appl Psychol. 2007;92(1):286.

[24] Greenberg J. The social side of fairness: Interpersonal and informational classes of organizational justice. lustice_in_the_workplace i–Approaching_fairness_in Hum Resour Manag Hillsdale, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. 1993.

[25] Bakhshi A, Kumar K, Rani E. Organizational justice perceptions as predictor of job satisfaction and organization commitment. Int J Bus Manag. 2009;4(9):145-54.

[26] Clay-Warner J, Reynolds J, Roman P. Organizational justice and job satisfaction: A test of three competing models. Soc Justice Res. 2005;18(4):391-409.

[27] Carr JC, Gregory BT, Harris SG. Work status congruence’s relation to employee attitudes and behaviors: The moderating role of procedural justice. J Bus Psychol. 2010;25(4):583-92.

[28] Whitman DS, Caleo S, Carpenter NC, Horner MT, Bernerth JB. Fairness at the collective level: A meta-analytic examination of the consequences and boundary conditions of organizational justice climate. J Appl Psychol. 2012;97(4):776.

[29] Van Dierendonck D, Jacobs G. Survivors and victims, a meta‐analytical review of fairness and organizational commitment after downsizing. Br J Manag. 2012;23(1):96-109.

[30] Theis S, Lefore N, Meinzen-Dick R, Bryan E. What happens after technology adoption? Gendered aspects of small-scale irrigation technologies in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Tanzania. Agric Human Values. 2018;35(3):671-84.

[31] Akter S, Rutsaert P, Luis J, Htwe NM, San SS, Raharjo B, et al. Women’s empowerment and gender equity in agriculture: A different perspective from Southeast Asia. Food Policy. 2017;69:270-9.

[32] Bailyn L. Academic careers and gender equity: Lessons learned from MIT 1. Gender, Work Organ. 2003;10(2):137-53.

[33] Van den Brink M, Benschop Y. Slaying the seven‐ headed dragon: The quest for gender change in academia. Gender, Work Organ. 2012;19(1):71-92.

[34] Iqbal Q, Ahmad NH, Halim HA. How Does Sustainable Leadership Influence Sustainable Performance? Empirical Evidence From Selected ASEAN Countries. SAGE Open. 2020;10(4):2158244020969394.

[35] Morris ML, Madsen SR. Advancing work—Life integration in individuals, organizations, and communities. Adv Dev Hum Resour. 2007;9(4):439-54.

[36] Morley L. The rules of the game: Women and the leaderist turn in higher education. Gend Educ. 2013;25(1):116-31.

[37] Chang CL. Confucian ethics perspective: The effect of course style on the information ethics cognition of students. Manag Decis. 2017;55(2):427-49.

[38] Ali AJ. Islamic challenges to HR in modern organizations. Pers Rev. 2010;39(6):692-711.

[39] Mohammad J, Quoquab F, Omar R. Factors affecting organizational citizenship behavior among Malaysian bank employees: The moderating role of islamic work ethic. Procedia-Social Behav Sci. 2016;224:562-70.

[40] Murtaza G, Abbas M, Raja U, Roques O, Khalid A, Mushtaq R. Impact of Islamic work ethics on organizational citizenship behaviors and knowledge-sharing behaviors. J Bus Ethics. 2016;133(2):325-33.

[41] Abuznaid SA. Business ethics in Islam: the glaring gap in practice. Int J Islam Middle East Financ Manag. 2009.

[42] Cheng SY. The mediating role of organizational justice on the relationship between administrative performance appraisal practices and organizational commitment. Int J Hum Resour Manag. 2014;25(8): 1131-48.

[43] Khan K, Abbas M, Gul A, Raja U. Organizational justice and job outcomes: Moderating role of Islamic work ethic. J Bus Ethics. 2015;126(2):235-46.

[44] Hofstede G. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind’, McGraw-Hill, London, UK. 1991.

[45] Hofstede G. Cultural dimensions. www geert-hofstede com, Consult. 2003;13.

[46] Shao R, Rupp DE, Skarlicki DP, Jones KS. Employee justice across cultures: A meta-analytic review. J Manage. 2013;39(1):263-301.

[47] Li A, Cropanzano R. Do East Asians respond more/ less strongly to organizational justice than North Americans? A meta‐analysis. J Manag Stud. 2009;46(5):787-805.


[49] Iqbal Q. Job-Crafting and Organizational Commitment: Person-Job Fit as Moderator in Banking Sector of Pakistan. 2016;3(12):837-51.

[50] Iqbal Q, Ahmad B. A Gender-Based Approach : Service Quality and Customer ’ s Loyalty. 2016;3(12):822-36.

[51] Nazir S, Shafi A, Atif MM, Qun W, Abdullah SM. How organization justice and perceived organizational support facilitate employees’ innovative behavior at work. Empl Relations Int J. 2019.

[52] Debeljak J, Krkač K, Rizk RR. Back to basics: an Islamic perspective on business and work ethics. Soc Responsib J. 2008.

[53] Ahmad MS. Work ethics: an Islamic prospective. J Hum Sci. 2011;8(1):850-9.

[54] Zapata-Phelan CP, Colquitt JA, Scott BA, Livingston B. Procedural justice, interactional justice, and task performance: The mediating role of intrinsic motivation. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process. 2009;108(1):93-105.

[55] Audretsch DB, Boente W, Tamvada JP. Religion, social class, and entrepreneurial choice. J Bus Ventur. 2013;28(6):774-89.

[56] Caleo S. Are organizational justice rules gendered? Reactions to men’s and women’s justice violations. J Appl Psychol. 2016;101(10):1422.

[57] Parboteeah KP, Paik Y, Cullen JB. Religious groups and work values: A focus on Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, and Islam. Int J Cross Cult Manag. 2009;9(1):51-67.

[58] Alagraa R, Abujaber A, Chandra P, Doughty J. Evaluating psychosocial support needs of female cancer patients in the State of Qatar. Qatar Med J. 2015;2015(1):4.

[59] Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd edn. Á/L. Erbaum Press, Hillsdale, NJ, USA; 1988.

[60] Niehoff BP, Moorman RH. Justice as a mediator of the relationship between methods of monitoring and organizational citizenship behavior. Acad Manag J. 1993;36(3):527-56.

[61] Devonish D, Greenidge D. The effect of organizational justice on contextual performance, counterproductive work behaviors, and task performance: Investigating the moderating role of ability‐ based emotional intelligence. Int J Sel Assess. 2010;18(1):75-86.

[62] Ali AJ. The Islamic work ethic in Arabia. J Psychol. 1992;126(5):507-19.

[63] Blomme RJ, Van Rheede A, Tromp DM. The use of the psychological contract to explain turnover intentions in the hospitality industry: A research study on the impact of gender on the turnover intentions of highly educated employees. Int J Hum Resour Manag. 2010;21(1):144-62.

[64] Podsakoff NP. Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. J Appl Psychol. 2003;885(879):10- 1037.

[65] Hair Jr JF, Sarstedt M, Ringle CM, Gudergan SP. Advanced issues in partial least squares structural equation modeling. saGe publications; 2017.

[66] Lee V-H, Leong L-Y, Hew T-S, Ooi K-B. Knowledge management: a key determinant in advancing technological innovation? J Knowl Manag. 2013.

[67] Sekaran U, Bougie R. Research methods for business: A skill building approach. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons; 2016.

[68] Hair JF, Howard MC, Nitzl C. Assessing measurement model quality in PLS-SEM using confirmatory composite analysis. J Bus Res [Internet]. 2020;109(November 2019):101-10. Available from:

[69] Chin WW. The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Mod methods Bus Res. 1998;295(2):295-336.

[70] Fornell C, Larcker DF. Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. J Mark Res. 1981;18(1):39-50.

[71] Henseler J, Ringle CM, Sarstedt M. A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. J Acad Mark Sci. 2015;43(1):115-35.

[72] Kline RB. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford publications; 2015.

[73] Hair Jr JF, Hult GTM, Ringle C, Sarstedt M. A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage publications; 2016.

[74] Dawson JF. Moderation in management research: What, why, when, and how. J Bus Psychol. 2014;29(1):1-19.

[75] Lam SSK, Schaubroeck J, Aryee S. Relationship between organizational justice and employee work outcomes: a cross‐national study. J Organ Behav. 2002;23(1):1-18.

[76] El-Masri M, Tarhini A. Factors affecting the adoption of e-learning systems in Qatar and USA: Extending the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 (UTAUT2). Educ Technol Res Dev. 2017;65(3):743-63.

[77] Nowakowski JM, Conlon DE. Organizational justice: Looking back, looking forward. Int J Confl Manag. 2005;16(1):4.