Covid-19 Mutations and the Effect of Different Vaccines on Immune Memory


  • Xanya Sofra City University, London, New School for Social Research, New York, the United States



We traced the coronavirus classification and evolution, analyzed the Covid-19 composition and its distinguishing characteristics when compared to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Despite their close kinship, SARS-CoV and Covid-19 display significant structural differences,including 380 amino acid substitutions, and variable homology between certain open reading frames that are bound to diversify the pathogenesis and virulence of the two viral compounds. A single amino acid substitution such as replacing Aspartate (D) with Glycine (G) composes the D614G mutation that is around 20% more infectious than its predecessor 614D. The B117 variant, that exhibits a 70% transmissibility rate, harbours 23 mutants,each reflecting one amino acid exchange. We examined several globally spreading mutations, 501.V2, B1351, P1, and others, with respect to the specific amino acid conversions involved. Unlike previous versions of coronavirus, where random mutations eventually precipitate extinction, the multiplicity of over 300,000 mutations appears to have rendered Covid-19 more contagious, facilitating its ability to evade detection, thus challenging the effectiveness of a large variety of emerging vaccines. Vaccination enhances immune memory and intelligence to combat or obstruct viral entry by generating antibodies that will prohibit the cellular binding and fusion with the Spike protein, restricting the virus from releasing its contents into the cell. Developing antibodies during the innate response,appears to be the most compelling solution in light of the hypothesis that Covid-19 inhibits the production of Interferon type I, compromising adaptive efficiency to recognize the virus, possibly provoking a cytokine storm that injures vital organs. With respect to that perspective, the potential safety and effectiveness of different vaccines are evaluated and compared,including the Spike protein mRNA version, the Adenovirus DNA, Spike protein subunits, the deactivated virus genres, or, finally, the live attenuated coronavirus that appears to demonstrate the greatest effectiveness, yet,encompass a relatively higher risk.


SARS-CoV2, Covid-19, mRNA vaccines, DNA vaccines, Inactivated virus vaccines, Covid-19 mutations, D614G, B117, P1, 501Y.V2, Immune memory, Spike protein


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How to Cite

Sofra, X. (2021). Covid-19 Mutations and the Effect of Different Vaccines on Immune Memory. Journal of Endocrinology Research, 3(1), 32–40.


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