A Review on Utilization of Light Weight Fly Ash Cenosphere as Filler in both Polymer and Alloy-Based Composites


  • Shashikant Kushnoore Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation Mechanical Enginering
  • Nitin Kamitkar Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation Mechanical Enginering
  • Vinay Atgur Koneru Lakshmaiah Educational Foundation, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh
  • Mallikarjun S Uppin Poojya Doddappa Appa College of Engineering
  • M. Satishkumar Qis College of Engineering and Technology, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh





Fly Ash Cenospheres (FACs) are obtained from the coal power plants in the form of hollow spherical particles by burning the coal. FAC was started to use in early 1980-1985 as lightweight filler material in producing composites of cementitious and at present many researchers are focusing on use of FAC as filler in polymer and metals. In this paper, the systematic review on research activities and application of FAC in manufacturing light weight products are done. The FAC influence on the mechanical and physical properties of incorporated polymer and alloy based composites were summarized. Prospects of future for its use were also suggested and summarized in this paper.


Fly ash cenosphere;Polymer and Alloy composites;Mechanical and Physical properties


[1] ASM International Engineered Materials Handbook, Desk Edition, www.asm-intl.org 1995.

[2] L Mohammed , M N M Ansari, G Pua, J Mohammad, IM Saiful, “A Review on Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite and Its Applications,” International Journal of Polymer Science Volume 2015.

[3] KY Lee, A Yvonne , AB Lars, O Kristiina, B Alexander, “On the use of nanocellulose as reinforcement in polymer matrix composites,” Composites Science and Technology 105, pp 15-27, 2014.

[4] Bryan Harris Engineering composite materials. The Institute of Materials, London 1999.

[5] PH Holloway and ‎P N Vaidyanathan, “Characterization of Metals and Alloys,” Momentum Press, New York 1993.

[6] K Friedrich, S Fakirov, Z Zhang, “Polymer Composites: From Nano- to Macro-Scale,” Springer, America 2005.

[7] Parker Jacob, “Fly Ash: Properties, Analysis and Performance,” Nova Science Publishers, UK 2017.

[8] S Firat, G S Yılmaz, T Comert, M Sumer, “Utilization of marble dust, fly ash and waste sand (Silt-Quartz) in road subbase filling materials,” KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 16(7), 2012.

[9] BI Oza and A S Amin, “Effect of untreated Cenosphere on Mechanical properties of Nylon-6,” International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication, 3(2321-8169), 2015.

[10] S Anandhan, “Recent Trends in Fly Ash Utilization in Polymer Composites,” Int J Waste Resources, 4 (3), 2014.

[11] Syntactic Foam Oxford English Dictionary citation of science: News Let. 2 Apr. 213/3.

[12] ASTM International, “Engineering Materials Handbook,” www.astm.org 1995.

[13] A H Landrock, “Handbook of Plastic Foams: Types, Properties, Manufacture and Applications,” Edited Noyes Publications, New Jersey, 147-163, 1995.

[14] J Rahul and T Hareesh, “Processing, compression response and finite element modeling of syntactic foam based interpenetrating phase composite (IPC),” Materials Science and Engineering A, 499, pp 507–517, 2009.

[15] N Gupta, B S Brar, B S Woldesenbet, “Effect of filler Addition on the Compressive and Impact Properties of Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy,” Bulletin of Materials Science, 2, pp 219-223, 2001.

[16] K V Joseph, F Finjin, C Joyson, P Das, G Hebbar, “FLY Ash Cenosphere Waste Formation in Coal Fired Power Plants And Its Application as A Structural Material- A Review, International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, 2(8), 2013.

[17] N Ranjbar and C Kunzel, “Cenospheres: A review,” Fuel, 207, pp 1-12, 2017.

[18] B R Manjunath, P Sadasivamurthy, P V Reddy, R H Karickal, “Studies on cenosphere as fillers for PVC compounds for application in electrical cables” Journal of the American Institute of Chemists Volume, 86(1), 2013.

[19] K R Pradeep, G Nikhil, F S Benjamin, D L Dung, “The synthesis, compressive properties, and applications of metal matrix syntactic foams,” The Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 63(2), pp 36–42, 2011.

[20] Johann Thim, “Performing plastics – How plastics set out to conquer the world of sports,” European Chemical Industry Council 2005, Retrieved 2009-08-07.

[21] A Das and B K Satapathy, “Structural, thermal, mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of cenosphere filled polypropylene composites,” Materials and Design, 32, pp1477–1484, 2011.

[22] M Labella, E S Zeltmann, V C Shunmugasamy, N Gupta, R K Pradeep, “ Mechanical and thermal properties of fly ash/vinyl ester syntactic foams,” Fuel, 121, pp 240–249, 2014.

[23] N Chand, P Sharma, M Fahim, “Correlation of mechanical and tribological properties of organosilane modified cenosphere filled high density polyethylene,” Materials Science and Engineering A, 527, pp 5873–5878, 2010.

[24] T Morimoto, T Suzuki, H Iizuka, “Wear rate and fracture toughness of porous particle-filled phenol composites,” Composites Part B, 77, pp 19-26, 2015.

[25] N Guptaa, E Woldesenbet, P Mensah, “Compression properties of syntactic foams: effect of cenosphere radius ratio and specimen aspect ratio,” Composites: Part A, 35, pp 103–111, 2004.

[26] S R Chauhan and S Thakur, “Effects of particle size, particle loading and sliding distance on the friction and wear properties of cenosphere particulate filled vinylester composites” Materials and Design, 51, pp 398–408, 2013.

[27] P Sampathkumaran, Kishore, S Seetharamu, V V Pattanashetti, V V Kumar, S M Kumar, H B Niranjan, “Fly ash cenospheres as reinforcement in different polymer composites – a comparative study of physical and mechanical properties,” Indian Journal of Engineering & Material Sciences, 22, pp 354-362, 2015.

[28] V C Divya, M K Ameen, R B Nageshwar, R R Sailaja, “High density polyethylene/cenosphere composites reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes: Mechanical, thermal and fire retardancy studies,” Materials and Design, 65, pp 377–386, 2015.

[29] H B Jalageri, G U Raju, K G Kodancha, “Experimental Investigations on Mechanical Properties of Cenosphere/MWCNT Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites,” American Journal of Materials Science, 5(3C), pp 101-106, 2015.

[30] S Ren, X Tao, X Ma, J Liu, “Fabrication of fly ash cenospheres-hollow glass microspheres/borosilicate glass composites for high temperature application,” Ceramics International, 44(1), 2017.

[31] R Balaji, M Sasikumar, A Elayaperumal, “Thermal, thermo oxidative and ablative behavior of cenosphere filled ceramic/phenolic composites,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, 114, pp 125-132, 2015.

[32] M R Wang, D C Jia, P G He, Yu Zhou, “Microstructural and mechanical characterization of fly ash cenosphere/metakaolin-based geopolymeric composites,” Ceramics International, 37, pp 1661–1666, 2011.

[33] P J Bora, M Porwal, K J Vinoy, Kishore, P C Ramamurthy, M Giridhar, “Industrial waste fly ash cenosphere composites based broad band microwave absorber,” Composites Part B: Engineering, 134(1), pp 151-163, 2018.

[34] R Balaji and M Sasikumar, “A study on the effect of cenosphere on thermal and ablative behavior of cenosphere loaded ceramic/phenolic composites," Polymer, 55, pp 6634-6639, 2014.

[35] P Sambyal, G Ruhi, Bhandari Hema, K D Sundeep, “Advanced anti corrosive properties of poly (aniline-co-o-toluidine)/ flyash composite coatings,” Surface & Coatings Technology, 272, pp 129–140, 2015.

[36] J Sharma, N Chand, M N Bapat, “Effect of cenosphere on dielectric properties of low density polyethylene,” Results in Physics, 2, pp 26–33, 2012.

[37] J Gu, G Wu, X Zhao, “Damping properties of fly ash/epoxy composites. Journal of University of Science and Technology Beijing” 15(4),pp 509, 2008. [38] S B Angadi, R Melinamani, V Gaitonde, M Doddamani, S R Karnik, “Experimental Investigations on Drilling Characteristics of Cenosphere Reinforced Epoxy Composites,” Applied Mechanics and Materials, 766-767, 801-811, 2015.

[38] V Chandel, O S Bhatia, M S Sethi, “Fabrication and Characterization of Al 7075-Cenosphere Composite & Its Comparison with Pure Al 7075: A Review,” International Journal of Research Studies in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2(3), pp 7-20, 2015.

[39] C Vikrant and S B Onkar, “Fabrication and Characterization of Al 7075-Cenosphere Composite & its comparison with pure Al 7075,” International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 29(3), 2015.

[40] M D Goel, D P Mondal, M S Yadav, S K Gupta, “Effect of strain rate and relative density on compressive deformation behavior of aluminum cenosphere syntactic foam,”. Materials Science & Engineering A, 590, pp 406–415, 2014.

[41] S Birla, D P Mondal, S Das, D K Kashyap, “Effect of cenosphere content on the compressive deformation behaviour of aluminum-cenosphere hybrid foam,” Materials Science & Engineering A, 685, pp 213–226, 2017.

[42] P K Rohatgi, A Daoud, B F Schultz, T Puri, “Microstructure and mechanical behavior of die casting AZ91D-Fly ash cenosphere composites,” Composites: Part A, 40, pp 883–896, 2009.

[43] S P Kumarasamy, Vijayananth Kavimani, T Thankachan, G P Muthukutti, “Investigations on mechanical and machinability behavior of aluminum/ flyash cenosphere /Gr hybrid composites processed through compocasting,” Journal of Applied Research and Technology, 15(5), pp 430-441, 2017.

[44] Z Huang and S Yu, “Microstructure characterization on the formation of in situ Mg2Si and MgO reinforcements in AZ91D/Flyash composites,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 509, pp 311–315, 2011.

[45] A Vishwakarma, D P Mondal, S Birla, S Das, “Effect of cenosphere size on the dry sliding wear behaviour LM13- cenosphere syntactic foam,” Tribology International, 110, pp 8–22, 2017.

[46] W A Uju and I N Oguocha, “A study of thermal expansion of Al–Mg alloy composites containing fly ash” Materials and Design, 33, pp 503–509, 2012.

[47] V Saravanan, P R Thyla, S R Balakrishnan, “A low cost, light weight cenosphere–aluminium composite for brake disc application,” Bull. Mater. Sci., 39 (1), pp 299–305, 2016.

[48] D D Luong, N Gupta, A Daoud, P K Rohatgi, “High strain rate compressive characterization of aluminum alloy/ Fly ash cenosphere composites,” JOM, 63(2), 2011.



Article Type