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Author Guidelines

Before submitting, please carefully review our author guidelines to ensure that your work meets our standards. Following these guidelines will improve readability during the review process and help speed up the article review and proofreading process.

Manuscripts should be written in Microsoft Word. You can download the Manuscript Submission Template and Cover Letter to prepare your manuscript.

Submission Preparation Checklist 

As part of the submission process, authors are required to confirm their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published under another journal, or is currently under consideration for another journal.
  • The document(s) have been formatted according to the requirements under Author Guidelines. The placement of illustrations, figures, graphs, tables, and equations have been integrated into the main manuscript.
  • All necessary sections are included, such as an abstract, keywords, introduction, methods, results, discussion, and references.
  • Manuscripts are confirmed to be written in clear and concise English, with proper grammar and punctuation.
  • DOIs or URLs have been provided wherever possible in the Reference List.
  • Including a cover letter explaining the significance of your work and how it fits within the scope of our journal.

Cover Letter 

All manuscript submissions should include a cover letter in a separate document that should include:

  • Names and affiliations of all authors (e.g., department, university, province/city/state, postal code, country).
  • Informed consent: confirming that written consent was obtained from all participants prior to submission of the article.
  • Ethics statement: If the currently submitted article Involves research with human or animal subjects, or involves pathology reports, etc., then the authors of the article will need to provide relevant materials for an appropriate ethics statement for all types of academic research.
  • Trial registration: e.g., name of trial registry, trial registration number.
  • Provide 3-5 highlights of your paper, which summarize the main findings and important conclusions of the research. These highlights should be presented in short bullet points and briefly describe the novelty and significance of the research.

Types of Articles 

The journal accepts many types of academic articles, including but not limited to Research article, Review article, Editorial, and Short communication.

Research article: These are original research articles that report on the results of a study or experiment. They typically include an introduction, methods, results, discussion, and conclusion section.

Word count: at least 4000, Abstract: up to 280 words

Review article: These articles provide an overview and critical evaluation of existing research in a particular field. They may include a summary of the current state of the field, key findings, and potential future directions.

Word count: at least 3000, Abstract: up to 280 words

Editorial: These are opinion pieces written by members of the editorial board or invited experts. They may provide commentary on recent research, discuss emerging trends in the field, or highlight issues of interest to the journal's readership.

Word count: no more than 1000 words

Short communication: These are brief reports that present original research findings, typically in a condensed format. They may include a concise introduction, methods, results, and conclusion section.

Word count: no more than 2000 words

Main Manuscript

The following sections are not fixed and can be adjusted and modified according to different types of articles.

Article Title 

The title should be concise and reflect the key points of the content while capturing the reader's attention. It should be accurate, clear, and attractive, allowing readers to quickly understand the main content and significance of the article.

The title should not exceed 20 words.

Author Information

Provide the name and affiliation of each author. (Department, University, Province/City/State, Postal Code, Country).

The corresponding author(s) should be identified.


The abstract should provide a brief summary of the main objectives, methods, results, and conclusions of the paper. It should be independent of the paper itself, a separate readable document that will gives the reader a comprehensive understanding of the paper. The abstract should also be limited to 280 words.


The manuscript should include 3-8 keywords after the abstract, separated by semicolons, avoiding words already used in the article title.

Section Headings

Headings at different levels should be numbered (e.g., 1, 1.1, 1.1.1) and use different formats to ensure clear distinctions between headings at different levels.


The introduction should highlight the significance of the research conducted, which should include the research background, research problem, and the purpose of the study.

Materials and Methods 

This section should provide comprehensive information on the materials, study design, experimental procedures, and methods of data analysis used in the study. This detail provided allows readers to be able to replicate the study in the future. Authors should ensure that any references made to other research or experiments are clearly cited to provide adequate context.


A presentation of the findings of the study, including tables, graphs, and other visual aids. The results should not be discussed at length in this section. Alternatively, Results and Discussion can also be combined to a single section.


In this section, the results of the experiments conducted can be discussed in detail. Authors should discuss the direct and indirect implications of their findings, and also discuss the results in relation to the research objectives and literature review, as well as the implications of the findings for future research.


This section offers closure for the paper. An effective conclusion needs to sum up the main findings of the paper, and its implications for further research.

Author Contributions

Identify the specific contributions of each author in the current submission, from the design and concept generation at the beginning of the study to the final publication.

Conflict of Interest

Authors are obligated to disclose any potentially relevant conflicts of interest.

Demonstrate relevant scholarly and financial conflicts of interest to the journal, including (but not limited to):

  • Financial relationship conflict of interest - the need to articulate the extent of involvement of relevant potential financial organizations, advisory relationships, investors, etc. in the scholarly research;
  • Funding source conflict of interest - need to clarify the role and benefits received by the sponsor or financial supporter in the scholarship;
  • Personal, political, or collaborative relationship conflicts of interest - need to clarify the potential conflicts of interest that may arise from these types of relationships.

If the author has nothing to declare, it is encouraged to add to this section "The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest.".

For more detailed information, see the Journal Conflict of Interest.

Data Availability Statement 

In the data availability statement, authors should provide information about the availability of data and materials used in the study. It should include details about how and where to access the data, including any restrictions on access or use. The statement should be clear and concise and should provide sufficient information for others to access and use the data. If the data is not publicly available, authors should explain why and describe any conditions or limitations on access.


In the funding section, authors should provide information on any sources of financial support for the research. This includes both external and internal funding sources. Authors should provide the full name of the funding agency, the grant number, and the name(s) of the author(s) who received the funding. If the research received no funding support, then the authors should state this clearly in the funding section.


In this section, authors can express their gratitude to individuals, organizations, or institutions that have supported their work or provided helpful feedback. This section can also be used to acknowledge technical or administrative support and funding sources that were not directly involved in the research.

In-Text citations

In-text citations should follow the author-date style in which the author’s surname and the year published are included in the text. If the reference has no known year of publication, use "n.d." (without the quotation marks). The citation style depends on the number of authors for the reference.


One author 

A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Pauling, 2005).
Pauling (2005) discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism.

Two authors

Always use both names. Examples:

Chandler and Tsai (2001) analyzed data from several reports. This theory was further supported by Chandler and Tsai (2001). In 2001 Chandra and Tsai proposed a possible mitigation measure. The method has proved to be valid in the literature (Chandler and Tsai, 2001).

Three or more authors

Use the first author’s last name followed by et al. and the year if there are three or more authors. If multiple references have the same first author, list as many as authors as possible to distinguish these references. Examples: This was further emphasized and subsequently widely accepted (Dickson, Andersen, and Thompson, 2014; Gates et al., 2016).

Personal communications and unpublished works can only be used in the main text of the submission and not in the Reference section. Authors are advised to limit such usage to the minimum. They should also be easily identifiable by stating the authors and year of such unpublished works or personal communications and the word ‘Unpublished’ in parenthesis.

E.g. (Smith J, 2000, Unpublished)


This section is compulsory and should be placed at the end of all manuscripts. The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. 

The references in the reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order of the first author’s surname. Authors referenced should be listed with their surname followed by their initials. All references should also appear as an in-text citation. References should follow the following pattern: Author(s) followed by year of publication, title of publication, full journal name, volume number, issue number in parenthesis and lastly, page range. If the DOI is available, please include it after the page range.


Journal Articles 
Younger, P., 2004. Using the internet to conduct a literature search. Nursing Standard, 19(6), 45–51.

Obisesan, T. O., & Gillum, R. F., 2009. Cognitive function, social integration and mortality in a U.S. national cohort study of older adults. BMC Geriatrics, 9, 33.

Jackson, D., Firtko, A., & Edenborough, M., 2007. Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: A literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 60(1), 1–9.



Schneider, Z., Whitehead, D., & Elliott, D., 2007. Nursing and Midwifery Research: Methods and Appraisal for Evidence-based Practice3rd ed. Elsevier Australia.


Chapter or Article in Book 

Conway, K. M., 2014. A critical quantitative study of immigrant students. In: Stage, F. K., Wells, R. S. (editors). New Scholarship in Critical Quantitative Research. Jossey-Bass, pp. 51–64.



Reports and conference papers:

MacDonald, S., 2008. The State of Social Welfare in the UK. University of Durham.

DiPrete, T. A., Bol, T., Coicca, C., van de Werfhorst, H. G., 2015. School-to-Work Linkages in the United States, Germany and France. In: Proceedings of The 2015 Annaul Meeting of the Population Association of America30 April—2 May 2015; San Diego, CA. 


Online document with author names:

Este, J., Warren, C., Connor, L., et al., 2008. Life in the clickstream: The future of journalism. Available online: foj_report_final.pdf (accessed on 27 May 2009).



Gale, L. , 2000. The Relationship between Leadership and Employee Empowerment for Successful Total Quality Management [PhD thesis]. University of Western Sydney.



ISO 27799:2008. 2008. Information security management in health.


Government report:

Citigroup Ltd., 2011. How to Make Your Money Work for You; Report for the Department of Finance. Report no. 123345, 13 June. OUP.


Note: When referencing an entry from a dictionary or an encyclopedia with no author, there is no requirement to include the source in the reference list. In these cases, only cite the title and year of the source in-text. For an authored dictionary/encyclopedia, treat the source as an authored book.

Supplementary material

In addition to the content of the main part of the paper, the content can contain supporting tables, pictures, raw data, etc., and sometimes it can also contain video material.

Graphs, Figures, Tables, and Equations 

Graphs and tables should be labeled immediately below the paragraph corresponding to the text and aligned with the center. Each data presentation type should be labeled as Figure or Table, and their order should be sequential and separate from each other.

Graphs and tables should be high-resolution images, closely linked to their corresponding titles and numbers.

Equations should be left-aligned and numbered in running order with their numbers in parentheses (right-aligned).

*All graphs, tables, and equations should be numbered and embedded in the main article.