Examining the Linguistic Identity of Asia’s Latin City: A Content Analysis of Multilingualism of a Nonmetropolitan Cityscape


  • Frenz Djaxxas Daleon Clorion

    Western Mindanao State University, Zamboanga, 7000, Philippines

  • Celane Lomoljo Fernandez

    Western Mindanao State University, Zamboanga, 7000, Philippines

  • Enrick Franz Daleon Clorion

    Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, San Fernando, Pampanga, 2000, Philippines

  • Aprillette Devanadera

    Southern Luzon State University, Lucban, Quezon, 4328, Philippines

  • Fhadzralyn Aidil-Karanain

    Western Mindanao State University, Zamboanga, 7000, Philippines

  • Ericson Alieto

    Western Mindanao State University, Zamboanga, 7000, Philippines


Received: 11 March2024 | Revised: 5 April 2024 | Accepted: 25 April 2024 | Published Online: 20 May 2024


This investigation offers an extensive analysis and examination of the linguistic landscape of a nonmetropolitan cityscape, focusing on the linguistic identity and multiple languages used throughout the city. This study fundamentally analyzes the multilingual nature and characteristics of the central district of Zamboanga City. Furthermore, the investigation incorporated analytical categories, adapted from previous studies, which constituted the systematic foundation for gathering and selecting essential data from multiple sources throughout the city proper. The investigation revealed significant results and indicated that the cityscape contains six (6) languages that comprise its linguistic identity, specifically, English (51.25%), Filipino (23.36%), Chavacano (19.59%), Tausug (2.99%), Chinese (1.74%) and Bisaya (1.07%). To ensure the accuracy of the collected data, the photographs were analyzed through content analysis to examine the linguistic signage of the nonmetropolitan cityscape. Moreover, the study revealed that the cityscape employs monolingual (80.79%), bilingual (18.82%), and multilingual (0.39%) signages, highlighting the city’s commitment to providing universally accessible information and preserving cultural/linguistic heritage. The investigation also revealed that English is the dominant language found within the signage, proving its significance in promoting global development, internationalization and economic growth in the city. However, despite its prominence, both local (Chavacano) and national (Filipino) languages are also evident in the cityscape, which underscores the city’s mission to preserve its cultural and linguistic identity, indicating that the languages are linguistically represented. In addition, the cityscape employs both official and nonofficial signage, which underscores its importance in information dissemination and advertising local services and products to international clients.


Linguistic landscape; Monolingual; Bilingual; Multilingual; Official signage; Nonofficial signage


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