Rheological and Mechanical Performance of Asphalt Binders and Mixtures Incorporating CaCO3 and LLDPE


  • Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Zhanping You Michigan Technological University
  • Mohd Khairul Idham Mohd Satar Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Muhammad Naqiuddin Mohd Warid Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Nurul Hidayah Mohd Kamaruddin Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
  • Sharvin Poovaneshvaran Universiti Sains Malaysia




This study was conducted to assess the performance of modified asphalt binders and engineering properties of mixtures prepared with incorporation 3 vol% and 6 vol% of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), and combinations of CaCO3 and LLDPE. The rheological properties of control and modified asphalt binders were evaluated using a series of testing such as rotational viscometer (RV), multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) and bending beam rheometer (BBR) tests. Meanwhile, four-point beam fatigue test, the dynamic modulus (E*) test and tensile strength ratio (TSR) test were conducted to assess the engineering properties of asphalt mixtures. Based on the findings, the RV and MSCR test result shows that all modified asphalt binders have improved performance in comparison to the neat asphalt binders in terms of higher viscosity and improved permanent deformation resistance. A higher amount of CaCO3 and LLDPE have led modified asphalt binders to better recovery percentage, except the asphalt binders modified using a combination of CaCO3 and LLDPE. However, the inclusion of LLDPE into asphalt binder has lowered the thermal cracking resistance. The incorporation of CaCO3 in asphalt mixtures was found beneficial, especially in improving the ability to resist fatigue cracking of asphalt mixture. In contrast, asphalt mixtures show better moisture sensitivity through the addition of LLDPE. The addition of LLDPE has significantly enhanced the indirect tensile strength values and tensile strength ratio of asphalt mixtures.


Asphalt modification, Binder rheology, Mineral filler, Mixture performance, Plastic


[1] Peters SJ, Rushing TS, Landis EN, Cummins TK. Nanocellulose and microcellulose fibers for concrete [J]. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2010, 2142: 25-8. https://doi.org/10.3141/2142-04

[2] Yildirim Y. Polymer modified asphalt binders [J]. Construction and Building Materials. 2007, 21: 66- 72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.07.007

[3] NCHRP. Guide for Mechanistic-Empirical Design of New and Rehabilited Pavement Structures, Part 2: Design Inputs, Chapter 3: Environmental Effects, . National Cooperative Highway Research Program [R]. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, 2004.

[4] Redelius P. Bitumen solubility model using Hansen solubility parameter [J]. Energy & fuels. 2004, 18: 1087-92. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef0400058

[5] Branco VAM, Mansoori GA, De Almeida Xavier LC, Park SJ, Manafi H. Asphaltene flocculation and collapse from petroleum fluids [J]. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. 2001, 32: 217-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(01)00163-2

[6] Greenwood NN, Earnshaw A. Chemistry of the Elements [M]. 1984.

[7] Ruan Y, Davison RR, Glover CJ. The effect of longterm oxidation on the rheological properties of polymer modified asphalts [J]. Fuel. 2003, 82: 1763-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(03)00144-3

[8] Doh YS, Amirkhanian SN, Kim KW. Analysis of unbalanced binder oxidation level in recycled asphalt mixture using GPC [J]. Construction and Building Materials. 2008, 22: 1253-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2007.01.026

[9] Polacco G, Berlincioni S, Biondi D, Stastna J, Zanzotto L. Asphalt modification with different polyethylene-based polymers [J]. European polymer journal. 2005, 41: 2831-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2005.05.034

[10] Stastna J, Zanzotto L, Vacin O. Viscosity function in polymer-modified asphalts [J]. Journal of colloid and interface science. 2003, 259: 200-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9797(02)00197-2

[11] Habib NZ, Kamaruddin I, Napiah M, Tan IM. Rheological properties of polyethylene and polypropylene modified bitumen [J]. International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering. 2011, 3: 96-100.

[12] Fang C, Li T, Zhang Z, Jing D. Modification of asphalt by packaging waste-polyethylene [J]. Polymer Composites. 2008, 29: 500-5. https://doi.org/10.1002/pc.20390

[13] Yousefi AA. Rubber-polyethylene modified bitumens [J]. Iranian Polymer Journal. 2004:101-12.

[14] Fang C, Li T, Zhou S, Wang X, Heiliger L. Study on the Modification Mechanism of Asphalt with Waste Packaging Polymer [J]. Transportation and Development Innovative Best Practices, 2008: ASCE: 468- 73. https://doi.org/10.1061/40961(319)77

[15] Drozdov AD, Yuan Q. The viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of low-density polyethylene [J]. International journal of solids and structures. 2003, 40: 2321-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7683(03)00074-X

[16] Lee N. Low Temperature Nature of PE-modifier Binder and Asphalt Concrete Mix [J]. AAPT1995.

[17] Sulaiman S, Stock A. The Use of Fracture Mechanics for the Evaluation of Asphalt Mixes (With Discussion)[J]. Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists. 1995, 64.

[18] Little DN, Epps JA. The Benefits of Hydrated Lime in Hot Mix Asphalt, 2001.

[19] Goh SW, You Z. Mechanical Properties of Porous Asphalt Pavement Materials with Warm Mix Asphalt and RAP [J]. Journal of Transportation Engineering. 2011, 138: 90-7. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)TE.1943-5436.0000307

[20] Hasan M, You Z, Satar M, Warid M, Kamaruddin N, Ge D, et al. Effects of Titanate Coupling Agent on Engineering Properties of Asphalt Binders and Mixtures Incorporating LLDPE-CaCO3 Pellet [J]. Applied Sciences. 2018, 8: 1029. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071029

[21] Kalantar ZN, Karim MR, Mahrez A. A review of using waste and virgin polymer in pavement [J]. Construction and Building Materials. 2012, 33 :55-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.01.009

[22] Brown ER, Kandhal PS, Roberts FL, Kim YR, Lee DY, Kennedy TW. Hot mix asphalt materials, mixture design, and construction [M]. NAPA Research and Education Foundation, 2009.

[23] Company TDC. Material Safety Data Sheet: DOWLEX 2517 Polyethylene Resin. In: Company TDC, editor, 2012.

[24] Minerals S. Material Safety Data Sheet: VICRON 15-15. In: Minerals S, editor, 2012.

[25] Inc SM. Technical Data: VICRON (Adams, MA). In: Inc SM, editor, 2013.

[26] Clingerman ML. Development and modelling of electrically conductive composite materials [D]. Michigan Technological University, 2001.

[27] Superpave Performance Graded Asphalt Binder Specification and Testing. Third Edition [R]. Asphalt Institute, 2003.

[28] Superpave Performance Graded Asphalt Binder Specification and Testing [R]. Asphalt Institute, 1995.

[29] Superpave [R]. Asphalt Institute, 1996.

[30] Zhou XY, Liu XY, Lu L, Gu L, Liu JJ. Study of the Preparation and Degradable Characteristics of CaCO3-PE Film [J]. Advanced Materials Research. 2012, 499: 85-9. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.499.85

[31] Greene J, Choubane B, Chun S. Evaluation of a Heavy Polymer Modified Binder through Accelerated Pavement Testing [R]. Transportation Research Board 92nd Annual Meeting, 2013.

[32] Wang C, Zhang JX, Song PP. Short-Term Ageing Influence on the Creep and Recovery Characteristics of Asphalt Binders [J]. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2013, 275: 2045-50. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.275-277.2045

[33] D'Angelo JA. The relationship of the MSCR test to rutting [J]. Road Materials and Pavement Design. 2009, 10: 61-80. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2009.9690236

[34] Kavussi A, Vázquez E, Hendriks CF, Janssen G. The Effect of Lime & Cement in Foam Bitumen Mixes. International RILEM Conference on the Use of Recycled Materials in Building and Structures: RILEM Publications SARL, 2004: 76-83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1617/2912143756.009

[35] Khodaii A, Kazemi Tehrani H, Haghshenas H. Hydrated lime effect on moisture susceptibility of warm mix asphalt [J]. Construction and Building Materials. 2012, 36: 165-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.04.073

[36] Button JW, Epps JA. Evaluation of Methods of Mixing Lime in Asphalt Paving Mixtures [R]. Texas Transportation Institute, 1983.

[37] Bahia HU, Zhai H, Zeng M, Hu Y, Turner P. Development of Binder Specification Parameters Based on Characterization of Damage Behavior (With Discussion) [J]. Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists. 2001, 70.

[38] Lu X, Isacsson U. Compatibility and storage stability of styrene-butadiene-styrene copolymer modified bitumens [J]. Materials and Structures. 1997, 30: 618- 26. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02486904

[39] Hao XH, Zhang AQ, Yang W. Study on the Performance of Nano Calcium Carbonate Modified Asphalt Concrete AC-13 [J]. Advanced Materials Research.2012, 450: 503-7. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.450-451.503

[40] Mallick RB, Brown ER. An evaluation of superpave binder aging methods.[J]. International Journal of Pavement Engineering. 2004, 5: 9-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/10298430410001720774

[41] Witczak MW. Specification Criteria for Simple Performance Tests for Rutting. Tempe, Arizona [R]. Arizona State University, 2007.


How to Cite

Mohd Hasan, M. R., You, Z., Mohd Satar, M. K. I., Mohd Warid, M. N., Mohd Kamaruddin, N. H., & Poovaneshvaran, S. (2019). Rheological and Mechanical Performance of Asphalt Binders and Mixtures Incorporating CaCO3 and LLDPE. Organic Polymer Material Research, 1(1), 10–21. https://doi.org/10.30564/opmr.v1i1.1015


Article Type



Download data is not yet available.