Effect of Fiber Sizing on Mechanical Properties of Carbon Reinforced Composites: A Review


  • Mayank Agrawal

    Indian Institute of Technology, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India

  • R.T.D. Prabhakaran

    Indian Institute of Technology, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India




Present study focuses on the carbon fiber sizing and their effect on overall mechanical properties of composites. Fiber sizing are one of the most important component in the manufacturing of composites. As the sizing are so much of importance in the manufacturing and development of composites which governs mechanical properties such as strength and stiffness. In this review some of the important articles are referred from the widely dispersed literature. This review covers the sizing effect, adhesion between fiber and matrix and characterization of composites


Carbon fiber; Fiber sizings; Composites


[1] Broyles N.S., Chan R., Davis R. M., Leasko J. J. and Riffle J. S. Sizing of carbon fibers with aqueous solutions of poly(vinyl pyrollidone), Polymer 39 (1998) 2607-2613. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(97)00562-4

[2] Cho D., Yun S.H., Kim J., Lim S., Park M., Lee G.W. and Lee S.S. Effects of Fiber Surface-Treatment and Sizing on the Dynamic Mechanical and Interfacial Properties of Carbon/Nylon 6 Composites, Carbon Science Vol. 5, No. 1 (2004) 1-5

[3] Dilsiz N. and Wightman J. P. Effect of acid–base properties of unsized and sized carbon fibers on fiber:epoxy matrix adhesion, Colloids and Surfaces A 164 (2000) 325-336. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7757(99)00400-8

[4] Zhang R.L., Huang Y.D., Liu L., Tang Y.R., Su D., and Xu L.W. Effect of the molecular weight of sizing agent on the surface of carbon fibres and interface of its composites, Applied Surface Science 257 (2011) 1840-1844. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.08.102

[5] Yao L., Li M., Wu Q., Dai Z., Gu Y., Li Y., and Zhang Z. Comparison of sizing effect of T700 grade carbon fiber on interfacial properties of fiber/BMI and fiber/epoxy, Applied Surface Science 263 (2012) 326–333 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2012.09.054

[6] Downey M.A. and Drzal L.T. Toughening of carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy polymer composites utilizing fiber surface treatment and sizing, Composites: Part A 90 (2016) 687–698. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2016.09.005

[7] Yuan X., Zhu B., Cai X., Liu J., Qiao K., and Yu J., Optimization of interfacial properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites via a modified polyacrylate emulsion sizing, Applied Surface Science 401 (2017) 414–423 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.12.234

[8] Liu F.,Shi Z., and Dong Y. Improved wettability and interfacial adhesion in carbon fibre/epoxy composites via an aqueous epoxy sizing agent, Composites Part A 112 (2018) 337–345 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.06.026

[9] Han W., Zhang H.P., Tavakoli J., Campbell J. and Tang Y. Polydopamine as sizing on carbon fiber surfaces for enhancement of epoxy laminated composites, Composites Part A 107 (2018) 626–632. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.02.003

[10] Stojcevski F., Hilditch T.B., Gengenbach T.R., and Henderson L.C., Effect of carbon fiber oxidization parameters and sizing deposition levels on the fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength, Composites Part A 114 (2018) 212–224 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.08.022

[11] Zhang W., Deng X, Sui G., and Yang X. Improving interfacial and mechanical properties of carbon nanotube-sized carbon fiber/epoxy composites, Carbon 145 (2019) 629-639 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2019.01.063

[12] Yu B., Jiang Z. and Yang J. Long-term moisture effects on the interfacial shear strength between surface treated carbon fiber and epoxy matrix. Composites: Part A 78 (2015) 311–317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2015.08.027

[13] Mao L., Shen H., Han W., Chen L., Lia J. Tang Y. Hybrid polyurethane and silane sized carbon fibre/epoxy composites with enhanced impact resistance, Composites Part A 118 (2019) 49–56 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.12.014

[14] Kobayashi S., Tsukada T. and Morimoto T. Resin impregnation behavior in carbon fiber reinforced polyamide 6 composite: Effects of yarn thickness, fabric lamination and sizing agent, Composites: Part A 101 (2017) 283–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2017.06.030

[15] Dilsiz N. and Wightman J.P., Surface analysis of unsized and sized carbon fibers, Carbon 37 (1999) 1105–1114 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6223(98)00300-5

[16] Jiao W., Cai Y., Liu W., Yang F., Jiang F., Jiao W. and Wang R. Preparation of carbon fiber unsaturated sizing agent for enhancing interfacial strength of carbon fiber/vinyl ester resin composite, Applied Surface Science 439 (2018) 88–95 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.12.226

[17] Zegaoui A., Derradji M., Ma R., Cai W.A., Medjahed A., Liu W.B., Dayo A.Q., and Jun Wang, Silane-modified carbon fibers reinforced cyanate ester/benzoxazine resin composites: Morphological, mechanical and thermal degradation properties, Vacuum 150 (2018) 12-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vacuum.2018.01.025

[18] Ozkan C, Karsli N.G., Aytac A. and Deniz V. Short carbon fiber reinforced polycarbonate composites: Effects of different sizing materials, Composites: Part B 62 (2014) 230–235 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2014.03.002

[19] Werken N.V.D., Reese M.S., Taha M.R., and Tehrani M. Investigating the effects of fiber surface treatment and alignment on mechanical properties of recycled carbon fiber composites. Composites Part A 119 (2019) 38–47 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2019.01.012

[20] Broyles N.S., Verghese K.N.E., Davis S.V., Li H., Davis R.M., Lesko J.J. and J. S. Riffle J.S., Fatigue performance of carbon fibre/vinyl ester composites: the effect of two dissimilar polymeric sizing agents, Polymer Volume 39 Number 15 (1998) 3417-3424. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(97)10078-7

[21] Tsai S.N., Carolan D., Sprenger S., Taylor A.C., Fracture and fatigue behaviour of carbon fibre composites with nanoparticle-sized fibres, Composite Structures 217 (2019) 143–149 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2019.03.015

[22] Thomason J.L. Glass fiber sizings: A review, Composites Part A 127 (2019) 105619


How to Cite

Agrawal, M., & Prabhakaran, R. (2019). Effect of Fiber Sizing on Mechanical Properties of Carbon Reinforced Composites: A Review. Organic Polymer Material Research, 1(2), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.30564/opmr.v1i2.1683


Article Type