Assessment of the Protective Capacity of Vadoze Zone over Aquifer Systems Using Secondary Geoelectrical Parameters: A Case Study Of Kaltungo Area North East, Nigeria


  • E.Y. Mbiimbe Department of Geology, Gombe State University
  • I.B. Goni Department of Geology, University of Maiduguri
  • J.M. El-Nafaty Department of Geology, University of Maiduguri
  • A.U. Yuguda Department of Geology, Gombe State University



An assessment of the protective capacity of the vadose zone overlying the aquifer systems in the Kaltungo area was carried out to determine its influence on groundwater quality. Applying the schlumberger array with a maximum electrode spread AB/2 = 100m through VES, thirty water well points were surveyed using Omega terrameter (PIOSO1) resistivity meter. The field data was first subjected to manual interpretation through curve marching and then digitized modeled curves using computer software. The interpreted data revealed that the area is characterized by eleven different curve types representing three to five geo electrical layers. In order to assess the protective capacity of the vadoze zone over the aquifer systems, the longitudinal conductance (S) and transverse resistance (T) (secondary geoelectric parameters) were computed from the primary data using the Dar Zarouk formula. The values of S obtained range from 0.0018 to 0.4056 ohms with a mean value of 0.0135 ohms while the values of T range from 0.55 ohms to 1195.68 ohms with a mean value of 39.84 ohms. The values of S and T obtained reveal that 90% of probed points has poor protective capacity, 10 % has moderate protective capacity and 83 % has high transmissivity, 17 % has intermediate transmissivity. The T and S values are skewed towards poorly protective capacity thus making groundwater in the area highly vulnerable to contamination from the surface. To achieve good groundwater quality in the area, proper completion of newly constructed wells should install protective casing through the entire vadose zone.


Assessment; Protective Capacity; Vadose zone; Aquifer systems; Secondary Geoelectric Parameters and Kaltungo Area


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How to Cite

Mbiimbe, E., Goni, I., El-Nafaty, J., & Yuguda, A. (2020). Assessment of the Protective Capacity of Vadoze Zone over Aquifer Systems Using Secondary Geoelectrical Parameters: A Case Study Of Kaltungo Area North East, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, 2(2), 1–11.


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