Sustainability Assessment of the Groundwater Quality in the Khoyrasole Block, Birbhum District, West Bengal to Achieve Rural Water Security


  • S. K. Nag Department of Geological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, India
  • Shreya Das Department of Geological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, India



In order to attain the water security goal, specifically in highly developing areas, delineation of pure and sustainable water resources is of utmost priority. In the present study, a preliminary investigation of the groundwater chemistry was carried out. This was followed by assessing the suitability of groundwater to be used as an alternative and reliable resource for public use in the Khoyrasole block, Birbhum district, India. Altogether 15(fifteen) samples of groundwater, were collected from bore wells spread well over the Khoyrasole block have been considered. After completing the chemical analysis of the groundwater samples, the study revealed the quality of groundwater. The spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as pH, Total Dissolved solids (TDS), Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Iron, Chloride, Carbonate, Bicarbonate, Sulphate, Nitrate and Fluoride have also been studied. High to very high levels of iron and fluoride have been observed to be present in 67% and 53% of the samples respectively. Based upon the calculated parameters like SAR, MAR, PI and Chloro Alkaline Indices, groundwater of Khoyrasole block is majorly suitable for the purpose of agriculture and irrigation. Plotting of ionic scatter plots and geochemical facies also indicate the water samples to be of “fresh water” category, with no dominant cation or anion playing a selectively dominant role in influencing the groundwater chemistry in the study area.


Water security, Groundwater assessment, Groundwater quality, India


[1] Ganesh, R.H., Kale, Y.S. Quality of lentic waters of Dharwad district in north Karnataka. Indian Journal of Environmental Health, 1995, 37(1): 52-56.

[2] Bouwer, H. Integrated Water Management: Emerging Issues and Challenges. Agricultural Water Management, 2000, 45(3): 217-228.

[3] Raj, I. Issues and Objectives in Groundwater Quality Monitoring Programme under Hydrology Project. Proceedings of National Symphony Groundwater Quality Monitoring, Bangalore, 2000: 1-7.

[4] Todd, D.K. Groundwater Development in an Arid Environment. Geoenvironment 2000 Conference, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, 1995:1429-1449.

[5] Gilson, R.J., Patment, C.R. Lake Phosphorous Loading from Septic System by seasonally perched groundwater. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 1983, 55(10): 1297 - 1304.

[6] Olaniya, M.S., Saxena, K.L. Groundwater Pollution by Open Refuse Dumps. Environmental Health, 1977, 19(3): 176-188.

[7] Eison, C., Anderson, M.P. The Effects of Urbanization on Groundwater Quality. Aquifer Contamination and Protection, UNESCO Press, 1980: 378-390.

[8] Sharma, H., Kaur, B.K. Environmental Chemistry. Goel Publishing House, Meerut, 1995.

[9] Subba Rao, C., Subba Rao, N.V. Groundwater Quality in a Residential Colony. Indian Journal of Enironmental Health, 1995, 37(4): 295-300.

[10] Banerji, A. K. Importance of Evolving a Management Plan for Groundwater Development in the Calcutta Region of the Bengal Basin in Eastern India. Proceedings of International Symposium Groundwater Resources and Planning, Koblenz, 28 August-3 September, 1983: 4554.

[11] Datta, N. C., Sen Gupta, S. Effect of Artificial Aeration on the Hydrographic Regime of Pesticide Treated Aquatic System. Journal of Pollution Research, 1996, 15(4): 329-333.

[12] Handa, B.K. Hydrochemical Zones of India. Proceedings of Seminar on Groundwater Development, Roorkee, 1986: 439-450.

[13] Ramachandra, S., Narayanan, A., Pundarikathan, N. V. Nitrate and Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater of Cultivated Areas in North Madras. Indian Journal of Environmental Health, 1991, 33(4): 421- 424.

[14] Somasekhar, R.K., Rameshiah, V. Chethana Suvarna A. Groundwater Chemistry of Channapatna Taluk (Bangalore Rural District) - Regression and Cluster Analysis. Journal of Environment and Pollution, 2006, 7(2): 101-109.

[15] Rengaraj, S., Elampooranan, T., Elango, L., Ramalingam, V. Groundwater Quality in Suburban Regions of Madras City, India. Journal of Pollution Research, 1996, 15(4): 325-328.

[16] Singh, K.P. Environmental Effects of Industrialization of Groundwater Resources: A Case Study of Ludhiana Area, Punjab, India. Proceedings of International Symposium on Soil, Geology and Landform-Impact of Land Uses in Developing Countries, Bangkok, 1982, E6.1-E6.7.

[17] Singh, M., Kaur, S., Sooch, S. Groundwater Pollution - An Overview. Journal of the Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering, 2003, 2: 29-31.

[18] Ek Sparsh Report. 2013,

[19] Rastogi, A.K. Inland Water Resources-India, M.K.Durgaprasad, P. Sankara Pitchaiah (Eds.), Discovery Publishing House, New Delhi (India), 1999, 2: 305.

[20] Rakesh, K., Singh, R.D., Sharma, K.D. Water Resources of India. Current Science, 2005, 89: 794-811.

[21] Honarbakhsh, A., Tahmoures, M., Tashayo, B., Mousazadeh, M., Ingram, B., Ostovari, Y. GIS-based assessment of groundwater quality for drinking purpose in northern part of Fars Province, Marvdasht. J. Water Supply: Res.T-Aqua, 2019, 68(3): 187-196.

[22] Khan, R., Jhariya, D. Groundwater quality assessment for drinking purpose in Raipur City, Chhattisgarh using water quality index and geographic information system. J. Geol. Soc. India, 2017, 90: 69-76.

[23] APHA (American Public Health Association). Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste Water. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington DC, USA, 1995.

[24] WHO. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, 4th edn. Recommendations (Vol. 1, p. 564). World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, 2011. Available from:

[25] Hem JD. Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristics of Natural Water. US Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 2254:236, Scientific Publishers, India, 1991.

[26] Kumar, M., Kumari, K., Ramanathan, A.L., Saxena, R. A comparative evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in two intensively cultivated districts of Punjab, India. Environ Geol, 2007, 53: 553-574.

[27] BIS: 10500: 2012 Bureau of Indian Standard. Drinking Water Specification, Second Revision, Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Bhawan, 9, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi, 2012.

[28] Todd, D.K. Ground Water Hydrogeology. Wiley International Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1980.

[29] Subramani, T., Elango, L., Damodarasamy, S.R. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in Chithar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Environ Geol., 2005, 47: 1099-1110. DOI:

[30] Richards, L. A. (Ed). Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. USDA Hand Book, 1954, 60: 160.

[31] Singh, A.K., Mondal, G.C., Kumar, S., Singh, T.B.,Tewary, B.K., Sinha, A. Major ion chemistry, weathering processes and water quality assessment in upper catchment of Damodar River basin, India. Environmental Geology, 2008, 54: 745-758.

[32] Gupta, S.K., Gupta, I.C. Management of Saline soils and Water. Oxford and IBH Publishing Company, New Delhi, India, 1987, 399.

[33] Schoeller, H. Qualitative evaluation of ground water resources. Water Resources Series No. 33, UNESCO, Methods and techniques of groundwater investigation and development, 1965, 33: 44-52.

[34] Schoeller, H. Geochemistry of groundwater. R. H. Brown, A. A. Konoplyantsev, J. Ineson, V. S. Kovalevsky (Eds.), Paris: UNESCO, Groundwater studies-An international guide for research and practice, 1977: 1-18.

[35] Arveti, N., Sarma, M.R.S., Aitkenhead-Peterson., J., Sunil, K. Fluoride Incidence in groundwater: a case study in Talupula, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ Monit Assess, 2011, 172: 427-443.

[36] Rajmohan, N., Elango L. Identification and evolution of hydrogeochemical processes in the groundwater environment in area of the Palar and Cheyyar River Basins, South India. Environmental Geology, 2004, 46: 47-61.

[37] Piper A M . A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analyses. Transact. Am. Geophys. Union, 1944, 25: 914-928.


How to Cite

Nag, S. K., & Das, S. (2020). Sustainability Assessment of the Groundwater Quality in the Khoyrasole Block, Birbhum District, West Bengal to Achieve Rural Water Security. Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, 2(2), 36–46.


Article Type