A Comprehensive Review of Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment in Delta State, Southern Part of Nigeria


  • Moses Oghenenyoreme Eyankware Department of Geology, Ebonyi State University Abakaliki P.M.B.053 Ebonyi State, Nigeria;Geomoses Consultancy Limited Warri, Delta, Nigeria
  • Bassey Edem Ephraim Department of Geology, University of Calabar, P.M.B.1115, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria




This research presents a review on water resources in Delta state, southern part of Nigeria, with emphasis on hydrogeochemical and microbial assessment. It evaluates factors responsible for water contamination, and their resulting health challenges within the study area. To achieve the objective of this study, related articles were downloaded from Google, published article on influence of hydrogeochemical and microbial activities on water resources. These articles were thoroughly studied. Findings from this study, suggested that groundwater was more studied than surface water. We also observed that groundwater within the riverine communities is much more prone to pollution when compared to groundwater in an upland area. Results from various authors suggested that, larger percentage of groundwater showed presence of coliform. Further findings suggested that geochemical processes such as rock water interaction, seawater intrusion and precipitation influences groundwater quality within the study area especially within Sombreiro-Warri Deltaic Plain Deposit.


Geogenic; Anthropogenic; Hydrogeochemical; Cause of pollution; Coliform; Nigeria


[1] Arif, S., Khan, U., Turab, A., Hussain, I., Habib, A., Mansoor, T., Mallick, D., Suhag, Z., Bhatti, Z., Ahmed I. Evaluation of Solar Disinfection of water intervention delivered through Lady Health Workers in reduction of diarrheal episodes in under five children. International Journal Pedestrian Child Care, 2016. 1:1.

[2] Abdel-Satar, A. M., Ali, M. H., Goher, M.E. . Indices of water quality and metal pollution of Nile River Egypt. Egypt Journal Aquatic Research, 2017. 43:21- 29.

[3] Eyankware, M. O., Nnajieze, V. S., Aleke, C. G. Geochemical assessment of water quality for irrigation purpose, in abandoned limestone quarry pit at Nkalagu area, Southern Benue Trough Nigeria. Environmental Earth Science, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7232-x

[4] Eyankware, M.O., Nnabo, P. N., Ogwah, C. Impact of past mining activities on water resources around active and abandoned mines and quarries in Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria -A mini review. Hydro Science & Marine Engineering,2020a. https://doi.org/10.30564/hsme.v2i2.2412

[5] Ulakpa, R .O.E., Eyankware, M. O. Contamination assessment of water resources around waste dumpsites in Abakaliki, Nigeria; A Mini Review. Journal Clean WAS, 2021. 5(1): 17-20. https://doi.org/10.26480/jcleanwas.01.2021.17.20

[6] Orji, E.A., Egboka, B.C.E. The Hydrogeology of Delta State, Nigeria. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 2015. (16)2; 257-268.

[7] Onifade, A., Ilori, R. Microbiological analysis of sachet water vended in Ondo State Nigeria. Environmental Research Journal, 2008. 2:107-110.

[8] Sarkodie PA, Agyapong D, Larbi GO, Owusu-Ansah E (2014) A comparative study of the quality of wastewater from Tema Oil Refinery (TOR) against EPA standards and its effect on the environment. Civil and Environmental Research, 2014. 6: 85-92.

[9] Oribhabor, B. J. Impact of human activities on biodiversity in Nigeria aquatic ecosystems. Sci. Intern, 2015. 4, 12-20.

[10] Ugochukwu PA, and Chidozie IPD. Water quality assessment and resource potentials: the case of Aba– Urban and its Environs, Niger Delta Basin. Water Resources,2018. 45(2):250-267.

[11] Eyankware, M. O., Ufomata, D. O., Effam, C. S., Akakuru, O. C. Physicochemical and bacteriological assessment of groundwater quality in Ughelli and its environs. International Journal of Innovational and Scientific Research. 2015. 14(2): 236-243.

[12] Eyankware, M. O., Selemo, A. O. I., Omo-Irabor. O. O. Hydrogeochemical assessment of ground and surface water of Eruemukohwarien community and its environs for domestic and irrigation purpose, Western Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. Journal of Science and Technology, 2016. 3(10), 91-108.

[13] Eyankware, M. O., Akudinobi, B. E. B., Akakuru, O. C. Quality Assessment and hydrochemical charactertics of groundwater in Ughelli and its adjoining Area for irrigation purpose, Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. Indian Journal of Science, 2017. 3(10), 120-134.

[14] Efe, S. I., Mogborukor, J. O. A. Acid Rain in Niger Delta Region: Implication on water resources quality and crisis. An International Journal of Science and Technology Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, 2012.1(1):17-46.

[15] Stewart, R. Environmental science in the 21st Century- An online textbook. Retrieved on the 1st of March 2013 from G: 2013.groundwatercontamination.html.

[16] Efe, S. I. Quality of rainwater harvesting for rural communities of Delta State, Nigeria. Environmentalist, 2006. 26;175-181.

[17] Ogbuagu DH, Okoli CG, Gilbert CL, Madu S. Determination of the contamination of groundwater sources in Okirika Mainland with Polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAHs). British Journal of Environment & Climate Change, 2011. 1: 90-102.

[18] Ohwoghere, A. O., Adaikpoh, E. O. Assessment of shallow aquifers contamination by failure of on site sewage disposal system in Ughelli, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 2013. 5(9), 208-216.

[19] Akudo, E. O., Ozulu, G. U., Osogbue, L.C. Quality assessment of groundwater in selected waste dumpsite areas in Warri, Nigeria. Environmental Research Journal, 2010.4(4):281-285.

[20] Olobaniyi, S. B., Ogban, F.E., Ejechi, B.O., Ugbe, F.C. Quality of groundwater In Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Hydrology, 2007a. 15(1);1-10.

[21] Olorunfemi D, Efechuku U, Esuana J. Toxicological evaluation of drinking water sources in some rural communities in southern nigeria after mycofiltration treatment. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 2015. 24(3); 1205-1212.

[22] Adesuyi, A.A., Nnodu, V.C., Njoku, K.L., Jolaoso, A. Nitrate and Phosphate Pollution in Surface Water of Nwaja Creek, Port Harcourt, Niger Delta, Nigeria. International Journal of Geology, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 2015. 3, 14-20.

[23] Esi , E. O., Marere, S. O., Peretomode, M., Asiagbe, E. T., Ohwona, C. Evaluation of physiochemical parameters in hand-dug wells water in Burutu, Delta State, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 2013. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20130206.13

[24] Emagbetere, JU, Oroka, VO, Ugbune U, Edjere A. Assessment of the Level of Groundwater Contamination and Its Implications in Oil Pipeline Areas of Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 2014.

[25] Efe, S. I. Spatial variation in acid and some heavy metal composition of rainwater harvesting in the oil producing region of Nigeria. Natural Hazard , 2010. 5: 307-319. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-010-9526-2

[26] Eyankware, M. O., Omo-Irabor, O. O. An integrated approach to groundwater quality assessment in determining factors that influence the geochemistry and origin of sandstone aquifers, Southern Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Malaysian Journal of Geoscience, 2019.3 (2), 23-32.

[27] Eyankware, M. O., Aleke, C.G., Selemo, A.O.I., Nnabo, P.N. Hydrogeochemical studies and suitability assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation at Warri and environs., Niger delta basin, Nigeria. Groundwater for Sustainable Development. 2020b. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2019.100293

[28] Efobo, O., Ugbe, F. C., Akpoborie, I. A. Groundwater conditions and hydrogeochemistry of the Sombreiro-Warri Deltaic plain deposit (Shallow Benin Formation) in the vicinity of Agbarho, Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research. 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jsr.v12i4.45187

[29] Daud ,M., Nafees, M., Ali, S., Rizwan, M., Bajwa, R.A., Shakoor, M. B., Arshad, M. U., Chatha, S. A. S., Deeba. F., Murad, W. Drinking water quality status and contamination in Pakistan. BioMed Research International, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7908183

[30] Hutchinson, M.M., Ridgeway. Microbial agent of drinking water supplies. Aquatic Microbiology Shewan and Stainer Eds. Soc. of appl. Bact. Technical Series, 1975. No 9.

[31] Okuofu, A. C., Echafona, N.O., Ayeni, O.G. Bacteriological and physicochemical examination of well waters in Ahmadu Bello University (main campus), Zaria, Nigeria. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Hydrogeologists (NAH), 1990. 2(1), 111-115.

[32] New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. Interpreting the presence of coliform bacteria in drinking water. Environmental fact sheet. New Hampshire, Department of Environmental Services, New Hampshire, 2010.

[33] Emmanuel E, Pierre MG, Perrodin Y. Groundwater contamination by microbiological and chemical substances released from hospital wastewater and health risk assessment for drinking water consumers. Environment International, 2009. 35:718-726.

[34] Odonkor ST, Ampofo J., A. Escherichia coli as an indicator of bacteriological quality of water: an overview. Microbiology Research, 2013. 4(e2): 5-11.

[35] Vunain, E., Masoamphambe, E.F., Mpeketula, P.M.G., Monjerezi, M., Etale, A. Evaluation of coagulating efficiency and water borne pathogens reduction capacity of Moringa oleifera seed powder for treatment of domestic wastewater from Zomba Malawi. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2017.103118.

[36] Cocker MD. Geochemistry and hydrochemistry of the Oconee River Basin. In: Hatcher KJ (ed) Proceedings of 1995 Georgia water resources conference held on the 11–12 April 1995, University of Georgia. 1995. Pp 67-70.

[37] Pazand K., Gbanbari, Y., Aghavali, Hezarkhani A. Groundwater geochemistry in the middle Meshkinshahr basin of Ardabil province in Iran. Environmental Earth Science, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-011-1131-8

[38] Mimosa M. Water Quality Assessment and Determination of Pollution Sources along the Axios/Vardar River, South Eastern Europe, Desalination, 2007. 213: 159-173.

[39] Word Health Organization WHO. Guidelines for drinking water quality, 2nd edition, Geneva, 3, 1-250. www. globalsecurity.org download. 2008 .

[40] Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON). Nigerian industrial standard: Nigerian standard for drinking water quality, Abuja.2007.

[41] Federal Ministry of Environment .FME. Guidelines and standards for water quality in Nigerian Publication, 2001. 1-114). Abuja: FME.

[42] Akpoborie, I. A., Nfor, B., Etobro, A. A. I., Odagwe, S. Aspects of the geology and groundwater conditions of Asaba, Nigeria. Archives of Applied Science Research, 2011. 3(2):537- 550.

[43] Nigerian Meteorological Agency. Asaba Meteorological Bulletin. In: National Meteorological Report. 2003.

[44] Allen, J. R. (1965). Late Quaternary Niger Delta and Adjacent Areas Sedimentary Environment and lithofacies, Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geology Bulletin. 49:547- 600.

[45] Short, K.C. and A.J. Stauble. Outline of Geology of Niger Delta. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. 1967. 54(5):761-779.

[46] Amangabara, G. T., Ejenma, E. Groundwater Quality Assessment of Yenagoa and Environs Bayelsa State, Nigeria between 2010 and 2011. Resource Environment, 2012. 2 (2), 20-29.

[47] Aweto K, Akpoborie IA. Geoelectric and hydrogeochemical mapping of Quaternary deposits at Orerokpe in the Western Niger Delta. Journal Applied Science Environmental Management, 2011. 15(2);351- 359.

[48] Eyankware, M.O., Igwe, E. O., Ulakpa, R.O.E., Ogwah, C. Achieving sustainable use and management of water resources for irrigation in Nigeria-Review. Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, 2020C. 2(2): 47-55.

[49] Akpoborie, I. A., Oghenevwede, E. (2014). Groundwater conditions and hydrogeochemistry of the shallow Benin Formation Aquifer in the Vicinity of Abraka. Nigeria. International Journal of Water resources and Environmental Engineering, 2014. 6(1):19-31.

[50] Aweto, K. E., Ohwoghere, A. O. An integration of geophysical and geochemical data in evaluating groundwater resources in sapele metropolis, western Niger Delta. Nigerian. Journal of Science and Environment, 2013. 12 (1); 49-52.

[51] Ushurhe, O., Origho, T. A comparative assessment of the quality of harvested rainwater, underground water and surface water for domestic purposes in Ughelli, southern Nigeria. Journal of Environmental and Earth Science, 2013, 3(12): 11.

[52] Emagbetere, J. U., Molua, C. O. Levels of temperature and electrical conductivity of ground water in Sapele local government area of Delta State, Nigeria. Elixir Pollution, 2012. (46)8141-8142.

[53] Akpoborie, I. A., Biokoro, U. C., Emoyan, O. O. Groundwater conditions and major-ion hydrogeochemistry of the Benin formation and the Ethiope River at the Sapele Municipality, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Science Toxicology and Food Technology, 2015. 9(1&2); 08-15.

[54] Ogaga, A.A., Olusegun, A.O., Elijah, I.O. Heavy metal levels in water and sediment of Warri River, Niger Delta, Nigeria. International Journal of Geology, Agriculture and Environmental Science, 2015. 3(1): 20-24.

[55] Oyem, H. H., Oyem, I.M., Ezeweali, D. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and chemical oxygen demand of groundwater in Boji-Boji Agbor/Owa area and immediate suburbs. Research Journal of Environmental Science, 2014. https://doi.org/10.3923/rjes.2014.444.450

[56] Olobaniyi, S.B., Ogala , J. E., Nfor, N.B. Hydrogeochemical and bacteriological investigation of groundwater in Agbor area, southern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, 2007b. 43(1); 79-89.

[57] Akpofure RR, Ikhifa OG , Okokoyo AP. Effects of agricultural activities on the water quality of Orogodo River, Agbor Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 2006. 2(5): 256-259.

[58] Amitaye, A. N. Quality Assessment of Ethiope River course from Obiaruku, Delta State, using physicochemical parameters as indicators. Journal of Environmental Management and Safety, 2014.5(2); 135- 144.

[59] Omanudhowho, I. G. Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in Warri, South south Nigeria.Published MS.c Dissertation. 2012.

[60] Arise, R. O., Osioma, E., Akanji, M. A. Assessment of water quality parameters from Swamps around Kokori Erhoike Petroleum Flow Station in Delta State, Nigeria. Der Chemica Sinica, 2013, 4(1):155- 161.

[61] Akpomrere, O. R., Uguru, H. Copper concentration and distribution in the groundwater of Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Geographical Research, 2020.3(3): 1-8.

[62] Overare, B., Avwenagha, E. O., Okpara, E., Osokpor, J., Ogbe, O.B., Overare, A.E., Ogueh, E.D. Hydro-Geochemical attributes of Quaternary Sands in Warri, western Niger Delta, Nigeria. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 2016. 17(1):301-310.

[63] Oyem, H. H., Oyem, I.M., Obiwulu, E.N. Barium, Calcium and sodium, cyanide, phosphate and sulphate contents of groundwater in some Ika Communities of Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Geoscience and Environmental Protection. 2017. https://doi.org/10.4236/gep.2017.58009

[64] Oboh, I. P., Egun, N. K. Assessment of the water quality of selected boreholes close to a dumpsite in Agbor Metropolis, Delta State, Nigeria. African Scientist, 2017.18(1); 43-51.

[65] Esi , E. O., Marere, S. O., Peretomode, M., Asiagbe, E. T., Ohwona, C. Evaluation of physiochemical parameters in hand-dug wells water in Burutu, Delta State, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection,2013. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20130206.13

[66] Ibiene, A.A., Agbeyi, E. V., Okonko, I. O. Bacteriological assessment of drinking water sources In Opuraja community of Delta State, Nigeria. Nature and Science, 2012.10(1):36-41.

[67] Okiriguo, V.I., Diakparomre, O. Microbiological Assessment of Well Water Obtained in Burutu Town, Delta State, Nigeria. Continental Journal of Biological Sciences, 2019. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3820667

[68] Olomukoro, J. O., Oviojie, O. E. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Bacteriological Studies in Hand Dug Wells in Udu Community of Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 2014. 4(22); 116-120.

[69] Ramesh, K., Elango, L., 2011. Groundwater quality and its suitability for domestic and agricultural use in Tondiar river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2231-3

[70] Ravindra K, Garg VK. Hydro-chemical survey of groundwater of Hisar city and assessment of defuorination methods used in India. Environment Monitoring Assessment, 2007. 132(1–3):33-43.

[71] Lima TB, Silva ON, Oliveira JTA, Vasconcelos IM, Scalabrin FB, Rocha TL, Castro CFS. Identification of E. dysenteric laxative peptide: a novel strategy in the treatment of chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome. Peptides, 20101.31(8):1426-1433.

[72] Klassen, J.K., D.M. Allen, and D. Kirst.. Chemical Indicators of Saltwater Intrusion for the Gulf Island, British Columbia. Unpubl. Research Report. Dept. of Earth Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Canada. 2014.

[73] Uma, K.O. and Egboka, B.C.E. Hydrogeochemistry, contaminant transport and tectonic effects in the Okposi-Uburu salt area of Imo State, Nigeria Hydrological Science Journal, 1986. 31, pp. 205-221.

[74] Nwankwoala, H.O. , Udom, G.J. Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of groundwater in parts of Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria, Journal of academic and applied studies,201. 1(2); 33-58.

[75] Asadu, A.N. Assessment of Water Quality of Delta State, Agbarho Area, Nigeria. International Research Journal of Interdisciplinary & Multidisciplinary Studies. 2016. 2(4): 57-65.

[76] Akpoborie, I.A., Ekakite, A. O., Adaikpoh, E.O. The Quality of Groundwater from Dug wells in Parts of the Western Niger Delta. Knowledge Review, 2000. 2: 72-79.

[77] Abimbola, A. F., Odukoya, A. M., Olatunji. A. S. Influence of bedrock on the hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in northern parts of Ibadan Metropolis. Water Resource-journal of Nigerian Association of Hydrogeologists (NAH), 2002.13, 1-6.

[78] Alakpodia, J.I.The environment of the Niger Delta. In B.C. Uweru and J.O. Ubrurhe (Eds), Readings in General Studies, Nigerian People and Culture. (pp190-203) About Research Pub. 2000.

[79] Okecha, S.A. Pollution and conservation of Nigeria’s environment. Ekpoma T. Afriqu Inter Ass. W.A.2000.

[80] Oguejiofor, G.C. Gas flaring in Nigeria: converting fuel gas pollutant into revenue – earning fertilizer by low cost retrofit of flare stations. Environmental Education & Information, 2000. 2(2): 91-100.

[81] MohammedAslam, M. A., Rizvi, S.S. Hydrogeochemical characterization and appraisal of groundwater suitability for domestic and irrigational purposes in a semiarid region, Karnataka state, India. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-020-01320-1

[82] Nwankwolala, H.O., Ngah, SA. Groundwater resources of the Niger Delta: Quality implications and management considerations. International Journal of water resources and environmental engineering, 2014. 6(5);155-163.

[83] Akpan, D., Ajayi, O. Adverse Effect of Water Contamination or Pollution to Human Health and Safety in the Nigeria Delta – Nigeria: An Environmental Case Study. Journal of Environmental Earth Sciences, 2016. 6 (10), 91-94.

[84] World Health Organization WHO. Guidelines for drinking water quality. Incorporating 1st and 2nd addenda, 1. Recommendations, 3rd edition, Geneva. 1997.

[85] Ezenwaji E E, Ezenweani ID. Spatial analysis of groundwater quality in Warri Urban, Nigeria. Sustainable Water Resources Management, 2019. 5:873- 882. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-018-0264-2

[86] Eboh, J O., Ogu, G I., Idara, M U.(2017). Microbiological Quality of borehole and well Water Sources In Amai Kingdom, Ukwuani Local Government Area Of oDelta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research | Sciences, Technology & Engineering, 201. 3(7): 17-28.

[87] Olatunji AS, Abimbola AF, Olorunta MO, Odewede AA. Hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater resources in shallow coastal aquifers around Ikorodu, Southwestern Nigeria. Water Resource, 2005.16:65- 71.


How to Cite

Eyankware, M. O., & Ephraim, B. E. (2021). A Comprehensive Review of Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment in Delta State, Southern Part of Nigeria. Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, 3(1), 16–28. https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v3i1.2900


Article Type