Spatial Distribution of Black Soot and Its Health Effects in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria


  • Miebaka Oriasi University of Port Harcourt, River State, Nigeria
  • Eteh Desmond Rowland Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
  • Ayowei Alvin Harry University of Salford, London, UK

Received: 7 January 2022 | Accepted: 4 March 2022 | Published Online: 29 April 2022


This research presents a novel approach to assessing the health implications of black soot using a MiniVol air sampler. The MiniVol air sampler was used to collect PM from the ambient air at six monitoring sites in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Sampling was conducted every day for seven days, for 24 hours. PM2.5 concentrations at Uniport Junction, GRA Junction, Slaughter Roundabout, Abuloma Jetty, Rumuomasi Roundabout, and New Road Borokiri were 38.6 g/m3, 28.3 g/m3, 93.7 g/m3, 72.9 g/m3, 30.6 g/m3, and 31.3 g/m3, respectively. PM10 concentrations ranged from 71.2 g/m3 to 60.6 g/m3, with 103.3 g/m3, 85.5 g/m3, 40.1 g/m3, and 35.2 g/m3 being the highest. The level of PM2.5 and PM10 pollution in the ambient air was high across the six sampling sites, with mean PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations exceeding the WHO (2011) guideline. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) technique was used. The presence of heavy metals, such as mean metal concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, and nickel, ranged from 0.009 g/m3 -0.532 g/m3, 0.002 g/m3 - 0.544 g/m3, 0.002 g/m3 -0.338 g/m3, 0.001 g/m3, and 0.001 g/m3 -0.432 g/m3, across the six sampling sites. The GC-MS was used to determine the presence of PAHs in particulate matter. Correlation results revealed a strong positive correlation between PM2.5 and PM10. The findings also revealed a positive relationship between the metals as well as between the metals and PAHs, resulting in asthma, lung cancer, breathing difficulties, and miscarriages among pregnant women, which have affected the health implications of the people living in the environment.


Black soot; Port harcourt; Air polluion; WHO; PM2.5; PM10; PAHs


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How to Cite

Oriasi, M., Rowland, E. D., & Harry, A. A. (2022). Spatial Distribution of Black Soot and Its Health Effects in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, 4(1), 32–46.


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