Landfill Site Suitability Assessment Using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in Butuan City, Philippines


  • Francis Jhun T. Macalam

    Department of Environmental Science and Technology, College of Science and Mathematics, University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines, Cagayan de Oro Campus, 9000, Philippines

  • Kaleb P. Arreza

    Department of Environmental Science, College of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Mindanao State University, 9023, Philippines

  • Angelica T. Magpantay

    Interdisciplinary Studies Center for Integrated Natural Resources and Environment Management, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna, 4031, Philippines

  • Kristine Y. Rabaño

    School of Environmental Science and Management, University of the Philippines Los Baňos, Laguna, 4031, Philippines

Received: 2 January 2023 | Revised: 16 April 2023 | Accepted: 18 April 2023 | Published Online: 23 April 2023


Landfilling is one of the most effective and responsible ways to dispose of municipal solid waste (MSW). Identifying landfill sites, however, is a challenging and complex undertaking because it depends on social, environmental, technical, economic, and legal issues. This study aims to map the optimal sites that were environmentally suitable for locating a landfill site in Butuan City, Philippines. With reference to the policy requirements from DENR Section I, Landfill Site Identification Criteria and Screening Guidelines of National Solid Waste Management Commission, the integration of a Geographic Information System (GIS) model builder and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been used in this study to address the aforementioned challenges related to the landfill site suitability analysis. Based on the generated sanitary landfill suitability map, results showed that Barangay Tungao (1131.42967 ha) and Florida (518.48 ha) were able to meet and consider the three (3) main components, namely economic, environmental, and physical criteria, and are highly suitable as landfill site locations in Butuan City. It is recommended that there will conduct a geotechnical evaluation, involving rigorous geological and hydrogeological assessment employing a combination of site investigation and laboratory techniques. In addition, additional specific social, ecological, climatic, and economic factors need to be considered (i.e. including impact on humans, flora, fauna, soil, water, air, climate, and landscape).


Geographic information system, Sanitary landfill, Analytic Hierarchy Process, Butuan City, Site suitability


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How to Cite

Macalam, F. J. T., Arreza, K. P., Magpantay, A. T., & Rabaño, K. Y. (2023). Landfill Site Suitability Assessment Using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in Butuan City, Philippines. Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, 5(1), 95–107.





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