Statistical Characteristics of the Temporal Spectrum of Scattered Radiation in the Equatorial Ionosphere


  • George Jandieri

    1VSB—Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava, 70800, Czech Republic

  • Nika Tugushi

    Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi, 0128, Georgia

Received: 2 February 2023 | Revised: 6 March 2023 | Accepted: 13 March 2023 | Published Online: 13 April 2023


On the basis of the solution of the space-time characteristic system by the method of geometric optics using symbolic calculations, analytical and numerical simulation of the propagation of the ordinary and extraordinary radio waves in the conducting equatorial ionospheric plasma was made considering the anisotropy of plasma irregularities and non-stationary nature of propagation medium. Broadening of the spectrum and the displacement of its maximum contain velocity of a turbulent plasma flow and parameters characterizing anisotropic plasmonic structures. Statistical moments of both radio waves do not depend on the absorption sign and are valid for both active and absorptive random media. Temporal pulsations and conductivity of a turbulent ionospheric plasma have an influence on the evaluation of the spectrum-varying propagation distances travelling by these waves. The new double-humped effect in the temporal spectrum has been revealed for the ordinary wave varying anisotropy coefficient and dip angle of stretched plasmonic structures. From a theoretical point of view, the algorithms developed in this work allow effective modelling of the propagation of both radio signals in the equatorial conductive ionospheric plasma, considering the external magnetic field, inhomogeneities of electron density in-homogeneities, as well as non-stationary.


Electromagnetic waves, Turbulence, Statistical characteristics, Waves propagation, Atmosphere, Ionosphere, Conductivity


[1] Ishimaru, A., 1997. Wave propagation and scattering in random media, Vol. 2. Academic Press: New York.

[2] Tatarskii, V.I., 1967. Wave propagation in a turbulent medium. Dover: New York.

[3] Гершман, Б.Н., Ерухимов, Л.М., Яшин, Ю.Я., 1984. Волновые процессы в ионосфере и космической плазме (Russian) [Wave phenomena in the Ionosphere and Space Plasma]. Nauka: Moscow.

[4] Rytov, S.M., Kravtsov, Y.A., Tatarskiĭ, V.I., 1989. Principles of statistical radiophysics: Wave propagation through random media, Vol. 4. Springer: Berlin.

[5] Jandieri, G., Ishimaru, A., Rawat, B., et al., 2018. Statistical moments and scintillation level of scattered electromagnetic waves in the magnetized plasma. Advanced Electromagnetics. 7(3), 1-10.

[6] Jandieri, G., Ishimaru, A., Rawat, B., 2015. Peculiarities of the spatial power spectrum of scattered electromagnetic waves in the turbulent collision magnetized plasma. Progress in Electromagnetics Research. 152, 137-149.

[7] Jandieri, G., Zhukova, N., Jandieri, I., 2012. Statistical characteristics of scattered radiation in medium with spatial-temporal fluctuations of electron density and external magnetic field. Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Application. 4, 243-251.

[8] Jandieri, G., Ishimaru, A., Jandieri, V., et al., 2007. Model computations of angular power spectra for anisotropic absorptive turbulent magnetized plasma. Progress in Electromagnetics Research. 70, 307-328.

[9] Jandieri, G., 2016. Double-humped effect in the turbulent magnetized plasma. Progress in Electromagnetics Research. 48, 95-102.

[10] Jandieri, G., Diasamidze, Zh., Takidze, I., Second order statistical moments of the phase fluctuations of scattered radiation in the collision magnetized plasma. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Computing (CSC). The Steering Committee of The World Congress in Computer Science, Computer Engineering and Applied Computing (WorldComp). p. 134.

[11] Jandieri, G., Ishimaru, A., Rawat, B., et al., 2022 Temporal spectrum of scattered electromagnetic waves in the conductive collision turbulent magnetized plasma. Advanced Electromagnetics. 11(1), 1-8.

[12] Кравцов, Ю.А., Орлов, Ю.И., 1980. Геометрическая оптика неоднородных сред (Russian) [Geometrical optics of Inhomogeneous Media]. Nauka: Moscow.

[13] Aydogdu, M., Guzel, E., Yesil, A., et al., Comparison of the calculated absorption and the measured field strength of HF waves reflected from the ionosphere. Nuovo Cimento. 30(3), 243-253.

[14] Ginzburg, V.L., Sadowski, W.L., Gallik, D.M., et al., 1961. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in plasma. Gordon and Beach: New York.

[15] Gavrilenko, V.G., Stepanov, N.S., 1987. Statistical characteristics of waves in the chaotically media with spatial-temporal irregularities. Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics. 30(1), 1-29.

[16] Kravtsov, Y.A., Ostrovsky, L.A., Stepanov, N.S., 1974. Geometrical optics of inhomogeneous and nonstationary dispersive media. Proceedings of the IEEE. 62(11), 1492-1510.

[17] Frolov, V.L., Shorokhova, E.A., Kunitsyn, V.E., et al., 2015. Peculiarities of excitation of large-scale plasma density irregularities HF-induced by modification of the ionospheric region. Izvestia VUZ-ov Radiophysics. 58(10), 797-810.

[18] Kvavadze, N.D., Liadze, Z.L., Mosashvili, N.V., et al., 1988. The phenomenon of F-scattering and drift of small-scale irregularities at night low latitudes F-region of an ionosphere. Geomagnetizm and Aeronomy. 28(1), 139-141.

[19] Chen, A.A., Kent, G.S., 1972. Determination of the orientation of ionospheric irregularities causing scintillation of signals from earth satellites. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics. 34(8), 1411-1414.

[20] Jandieri, G.V., Ishimaru, A., Rawat. B., et al., 2017. Power spectra of ionospheric scintillations. Advanced Electromagnetics. 6(4), 42-51.


How to Cite

Jandieri, G., & Tugushi, N. (2023). Statistical Characteristics of the Temporal Spectrum of Scattered Radiation in the Equatorial Ionosphere. Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, 5(1), 85–94.


Article Type