Hyperspectral Inversion and Analysis of Zinc Concentration in Urban Soil in the Urumqi City of China
Excessive accumulation of zinc (Zn) in urban soil can lead to environmental pollution and pose a potential threat to human health and the ecosystem. How to quickly and accurately monitor the urban soil zinc content on a large scale in real time and dynamically is crucial. Hyperspectral remote sensing technology provides a new method for rapid and nondestructive soil property detection. The main goal of this study is to find an optimal combination of spectral transformation and a hyperspectral estimation model to predict the Zn content in urban soil. A total of 88 soil samples were collected to obtain the Zn contents and related hyperspectral data, and perform 18 transformations on the original spectral data. Then, select important wavelengths by Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis (PCC) and CARS. Finally, establish a partial least squares regression model (PLSR) and random forest regression model (RFR) with soil Zn content and important wavelengths. The results indicated that the average Zn content of the collected soil samples is 60.88 mg/kg. Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis (PCC) and CARS for the original and transformed wavelengths can effectively improve the correlations between the spectral data and soil Zn content. The number of important wavelengths selected by CARS is less than the important wavelengths selected by PCC. Partial least squares regression model based on first-order differentiation of the reciprocal by CARS (CARS-RTFD-PLSR) is more stable and has the highest prediction ability (R2 = 0.937, RMSE = 8.914, MAE = 2.735, RPD = 3.985). The CARS-RTFD-PLSR method can be used as a means of prediction of Zn content in soil in oasis cities. The results of the study can provide technical support for the hyperspectral estimation of the soil Zn content.
Keywords:Urban soil, Zinc, Hyperspectral remote sensing, Prediction, PLSR, RFR
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