Water Quality Assessment Using the Water Quality Index, and Geographic Information Systems in Nador Canal, Morocco


  • Driss Hammoumi

    Laboratory of Geosciences, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, BP 133, Morocco

  • Hefdhallah S. Al-Aizari

    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, Dhamar University, Dhamar, PO Box 87246, Yemen

  • Zaid Alkhawlani

    Laboratory of Research in Informatics (LaRI), Faculty of Science, Ibn Tofail University, BP 133, Kenitra, Morocco

  • Saïd Chakiri

    Laboratory of Geosciences, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, BP 133, Morocco

  • Zohra Bejjaji

    Laboratory of Geosciences, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, BP 133, Morocco


Received: 25 March 2024 | Revised: 18 April 2024 | Accepted: 19 April 2024 | Published Online: 12 May 2024


In recent decades, water pollution has emerged as a significant concern, posing a threat to both humans and natural ecosystems. This study aimed to assess the spatial variations in water quality in the Nador Canal, Morocco using the water quality index combined with multivariate statistical techniques and geographic information systems (GIS). The parameters examined were then compared to the maximum permissible limit values recommended by Moroccan surface water standards and the World Health Organization. The results indicated that the WQI of Nador Canal is generally suitable for irrigation and unsuitable for drinking. It indicated that the quality of surface water in the Nador Canal is affected by organic pollutants, and this is evidenced by low levels of dissolved oxygen, the levels of elements were high, especially chlorine and sodium, in addition to a high concentration of ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate in some of the stations studied. Principal component analysis (PCA) results revealed that PC1–PC3 collectively accounted for 73% of the variation in surface water quality within the study area. The cluster analysis also proves that the water quality is relatively polluted. Potential contributing factors to surface water pollution include changes in the hydrological regime, household waste discharges, and agricultural activities. These findings furnish essential insights into water quality, particularly its suitability for irrigation, and contribute to enhancing the water quality management system of the Nador Canal in the Gharb region of Morocco.


Samples, Water quality index, Surface water, GIS


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How to Cite

Hammoumi, D., Al-Aizari, H. S., Alkhawlani, Z., Chakiri, S., & Bejjaji, Z. (2024). Water Quality Assessment Using the Water Quality Index, and Geographic Information Systems in Nador Canal, Morocco. Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, 6(2), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v6i2.6310