Design and Implementation of a Control System to Mitigate Osteonecrosis in Orthopedic Bone Drilling Procedures
The drilling process in orthopedic surgery can sometimes lead to an undesired increase in temperature, which can cause serious damage to bones and soft tissues. This overheating is typically identified as a temperature above 47°C, known as the critical limit, and can result in the condition known as osteonecrosis. A previous study  designed and manufactured a prototype drill mechanism with a cooling device and tested it on fresh bovine bones in laboratory conditions. This study aims to develop a new control system, using a proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller, to prevent overheating and the resulting osteonecrosis. The bone temperature is constantly measured using a thermocouple and, when it reaches the critical temperature of 47°C, the cooling device is activated by the PID controlled system. This new control system makes the drill mechanism with cooling device more user-friendly and allows surgeons to set a desired temperature level manually.
Keywords:Bone drilling, orthopedic surgery, osteonecrosis, PID controller, driller mechanism
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