Source, Contamination Assessment and Risk Evaluation of Heavy Metals in the Stream Sediments of Rivers around Olode Area SW, Nigeria


  • Stellamaris Isioma Okonkwo

    Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Owerri, Imo State, 460114, Nigeria

  • Sunday Ojochogwu Idakwo

    Department of Geology and Mining, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State, 740005, Nigeria

  • Mofolorunsho Samuel Kolawole

    Department of Geology, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, 360001, Nigeria

  • Olufemi Faloye

    Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 200005, Nigeria

  • Anthony Azubuike Elueze

    Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 200005, Nigeria

Received: 12 September 2022 | Revised: 18 March 2023 | Accepted: 21 March 2023 | Published Online: 13 April 2023


In order to investigate the source, contamination, and risk of heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, and Cr, twelve (12) stream sediments and ten (10) rock samples were collected from pegmatite mining sites at Olode and its environs inside Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. The average values and order of abundance obtained followed the pattern: Mn (595.09) > Ba (80) > Cr (50.82) > V (45.09) > Zn (29.73) > Cu (13.82) > Co (13.82) > Sr (10.46) > Ni (9.73) > Pb (9.09) > Fe (1.59). These were greater than the background values, indicating that mining has a negative impact on the study area, as indicated by the high coefficient of variation and correlation values (> 0.6) for Copper-Lead (0.929), Copper-Vanadium (0.970), Copper-Chromium (0.815), Lead-Vanadium (0.884), and others. On the basis of the enrichment factor (EF), the Olode sediments show extremely high enrichment for Mn and Ba in the research region. Cu and Ni are most likely to blame for the elevated contamination levels, according to CF values. The degree of contamination (CD), pollution load index (PLI), pollution index (PI), and modified pollution index (MPI) all revealed high levels of contamination in all stream sediment samples, whereas Igeo shows that the Olode stream sediments are “practically uncontaminated to extremely contaminated by Ni, Co, and Mn”. Ni and Cu are the major regulating factors that are most likely causing the possible Eri. As a result, these findings give important information for conducting appropriate ecological management research.


Olode, Heavy metals, Stream sediments, Risk assessment, Contamination indices


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How to Cite

Okonkwo, S. I., Idakwo, S. O., Kolawole, M. S., Faloye, O., & Elueze, A. A. (2023). Source, Contamination Assessment and Risk Evaluation of Heavy Metals in the Stream Sediments of Rivers around Olode Area SW, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, 5(1), 65–84.


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