Source, Contamination Assessment and Risk Evaluation of Heavy Metals in the Stream Sediments of Rivers around Olode Area SW, Nigeria


  • Stellamaris Isioma Okonkwo

    Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Owerri, Imo State, 460114, Nigeria

  • Sunday Ojochogwu Idakwo

    Department of Geology and Mining, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State, 740005, Nigeria

  • Mofolorunsho Samuel Kolawole

    Department of Geology, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti, Ekiti State, 360001, Nigeria

  • Olufemi Faloye

    Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 200005, Nigeria

  • Anthony Azubuike Elueze

    Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, 200005, Nigeria

Received: 12 September 2022 | Revised: 18 March 2023 | Accepted: 21 March 2023 | Published Online: 13 April 2023


In order to investigate the source, contamination, and risk of heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, and Cr, twelve (12) stream sediments and ten (10) rock samples were collected from pegmatite mining sites at Olode and its environs inside Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. The average values and order of abundance obtained followed the pattern: Mn (595.09) > Ba (80) > Cr (50.82) > V (45.09) > Zn (29.73) > Cu (13.82) > Co (13.82) > Sr (10.46) > Ni (9.73) > Pb (9.09) > Fe (1.59). These were greater than the background values, indicating that mining has a negative impact on the study area, as indicated by the high coefficient of variation and correlation values (> 0.6) for Copper-Lead (0.929), Copper-Vanadium (0.970), Copper-Chromium (0.815), Lead-Vanadium (0.884), and others. On the basis of the enrichment factor (EF), the Olode sediments show extremely high enrichment for Mn and Ba in the research region. Cu and Ni are most likely to blame for the elevated contamination levels, according to CF values. The degree of contamination (CD), pollution load index (PLI), pollution index (PI), and modified pollution index (MPI) all revealed high levels of contamination in all stream sediment samples, whereas Igeo shows that the Olode stream sediments are “practically uncontaminated to extremely contaminated by Ni, Co, and Mn”. Ni and Cu are the major regulating factors that are most likely causing the possible Eri. As a result, these findings give important information for conducting appropriate ecological management research.


Olode, Heavy metals, Stream sediments, Risk assessment, Contamination indices


[1] Wuana, R.A., Okeimen, F.E., 2011. Heavy metals in contaminated soils: A review of sources, chemistry, risks and best available strategies for remediation. International Scholarly Research Notices. 1-20. DOI:

[2] Islam, S., Ahmed, K., Al-Mamun, H., et al., 2019. Sources and ecological risk of heavy metals in soils of different land uses in Bangladesh. Pedosphere. 29(5), 665-675. DOI:

[3] Lei, M., Zhang, Y., Khan, S., et al., 2010. Pollution, fractionation, and mobility of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in garden and paddy soils from a Pb/Zn Mining area. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 168(1-4), 215-222. DOI:

[4] Lottermoser, B., 2007. Mine wastes: Characterization, treatment and environmental impacts. Springer: New York. pp. 1-290.

[5] Fashola, M.O., Ngole-Jeme, V.M., Babalola, O.O., 2016. Heavy metal pollution from gold mines: environmental effects and bacterial strategies for resistance. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 13(11), 1047. DOI:

[6] Finkelman, R.B., Orem, W.H., Plumlee, G.S., et al., 2018. Applications of geochemistry to medical geology. Environmental geochemistry: Site characterization, data analysis and case histories. Elsevier: Amsterdam. pp. 435-465. DOI:

[7] Ayuso, R.A., Foley, N.K., 2018. Lead and strontium isotopes as monitors of anthropogenic contaminants in the surficial environment. Environmental geochemistry: Site characterization, data analysis and case histories. Elsevier: Amsterdam. pp. 307-362. DOI:

[8] Zarei, I., Pourkhabbaz, A., Khuzestani, R.B., 2014. An assessment of metal contamination risk in sediments of Hara Biosphere Reserve, southern Iran with a focus on application of pollution indicators. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 186, 6047-6060.

[9] Kumar, S., Trivedi, P.K., 2016. Heavy metal stress signaling in plants. Plant metal interaction. Elsevier: Amsterdam. pp. 585-603. DOI:

[10] Zhang, W., You, M., Hu, Y., 2016. The distribution and accumulation characteristics of heavy metals in soil and plant from Huainan coalfield, China. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 35(4), 1098-1104. DOI:

[11] Atkinson, C., Jolley, D., Simpson, S., 2007. Effect of over-lying water pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity and sediment disturbances on metal release and sequestration from metal contaminated marine sediments. Chemosphere. 69(9), 1428-1437. DOI:

[12] Salah, E.A., Turki, A.M., Mahal, S.N., 2015. Chemometric evaluation of the heavy metals in urban soil of Fallujah City, Iraq. Journal of Environmental Protection. 6, 1279-1292.

[13] Adewumi, A.J., Laniyan, T.A., 2020. Contamination, sources and risk assessments of metals in media from Anka artisanal gold mining area, Northwest Nigeria. Science of the Total Environment. 718(137235), 1-14.

[14] Atgin, R.S., El-Agha, O., Zararsız, A., et al., 2000. Investigation of the sediment pollution in Izmir Bay: Trace elements. Spectrochimica Acta Part B. 55, 1151-1164. DOI:

[15] Adamu, C.I., Nganje, T.N., Edet, A., 2014. Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment associated with abandoned barite mines in Cross River State, south-eastern Nigeria. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management. 3, 10-21. DOI:

[16] Oyebamiji, A., Odebunmi, A., Ruizhong, H., et al., 2018. Assessment of trace metals contamination in stream sediments and soils in Abuja leather mining, southwestern Nigeria. Acta Geochimica. 37(4), 592-613. DOI:

[17] Kolawole, T.O., Olatunji, A.S., Jimoh, M.T., et al., 2018. Heavy metal contamination and ecological risk assessment in soils and sediments of an Industrial area in Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Health and Pollution. 8(19), 1-16.

[18] Boroumandi, M., Khamehchiyan, M., Nikoudel, M.R., et al., 2019. Evaluation of soil pollution sources using multivariate analysis combined with geostatistical methods in Zanjan Basin, Iran. Geopersia. 9(2), 293-304. DOI:

[19] Madukwe, H.Y., Ibigbami, O.A., Obasi, R.A., 2020. Assessment of trace and rare earth element levels in stream sediments in Ijero-Ekiti Area, Southwest Nigeria. Nature Environment and Pollution Technology. 19(2), 421-439.

[20] Aina, A.T., Salau, A.T. (editors), 1992. The challenge of sustainable development in Nigeria. An NGO Report Prepared for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; 1992 Jun 1-12; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. NEST: Nigeria. pp. 16-44.

[21] Bell, R.G., Rusell, C., 2002. Environmental policy for developing countries. Issues in Science and Technology. 18(3), 63-70.

[22] Okonkwo, S.I., Idakwo, S.O., Ameh, E.G., 2021. Heavy metal contamination and ecological risk assessment of soils around the pegmatite mining sites at Olode area, Ibadan southwestern Nigeria. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management. 15, 100424. DOI:

[23] Egbinola, C.N., Amobichukwu, A.C., 2013. Climate variation assessment based on rainfall and temperature in Ibadan, South-Western, Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 3(11), 32-45.

[24] Dulski, P., 2001. Reference materials for geochemical studies: new analytical data by ICP-MS and critical discussion of reference values. Geostandards Newsletter. 25(1), 87-125. DOI:

[25] Brady, J.P., Ayoko, G.A., Martens, W.N., et al., 2015. Development of a hybrid pollution index for heavy metals in marine and estuarine sediments. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 187(5), 306.

[26] Qingjie, G., Jun, D., Yunchuan, X., et al., 2008. Calculating pollution indices by heavy metals in ecological geochemistry assessment and a case study in parks of Beijing. Journal of China University of Geosciences. 19(3), 230-241. DOI:

[27] Hakanson, L., 1980. An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control a sedimentological approaches. Water Research. 14(8), 975-1001. DOI:

[28] Feng, H., Han, X., Zhang, W.G., et al., 2004. A preliminary study of heavy metal contamination in Yangtze River Intertidal Zone Due to urbanization. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 49(11-12), 910-915. DOI:

[29] Tippie, V.K., 1984. An environmental characterization of Chesapeake Bay and a frame work for action. The estuary as a filter. Academic Press: New York.

[30] Mmolawa, K., Likuku, A., Gaboutloeloe, G., 2011. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along roadside areas in Botswana. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 5(3), 186-196.

[31] Muller, G., 1969. Index of geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. GeoJournal. 2(3), 108-118.

[32] Duodu, G.O., Goonetilleke, A., Ayoko, G.A., 2016. Comparison of pollution indices for the assessment of heavy metal in Brisbane River sediment. Environmental Pollution. 219, 1077-1091. DOI:

[33] Nemerow, N.L., 1991. Stream, lake, estuary, and ocean pollution. Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York. pp. 472.

[34] Tomlinson, D., Wilson, J., Harris, C., et al., 1980. Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgolnder Meeresuntersuchungen. 33, 566-575.

[35] Wang, Z., Wang, Y., Chen, L., et al., 2015. Assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediments of the Maluan Bay (China) using geochemical indices and multivariate statistical approaches. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 99(1-2), 43-53. DOI:

[36] Li, C., Lu, F.Y., Zhang, Y., et al., 2008. Spatial distribution characteristics of heavy metals in street dust in Shenyang city. Ecology Environment. 17(2), 560-564.

[37] Buchauer, M.J., 1973. Contamination of soil and vegetation near a Zinc smelter by Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb. Environmental Science and Technology. 7, 131-135.

[38] Ward, N.E., Brooks, R.R., Reeves, R.D., 1976. Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils, stream sediments, waters around tin mine. New Zealand Journal of Science. 19, 81-99.

[39] Sinex, S., Helz, G., 1981. Regional geochemistry of trace elements in Chesapeak Bay sediments. Environmental Geology. 3, 315-323. DOI:

[40] Chakravarty, M., Patgiri, A., 2009. Metal pollution assessment in sediments of the Dikrong River, N. E. India. Journal of Human Ecology. 27(1), 63-67.


How to Cite

Okonkwo, S. I., Idakwo, S. O., Kolawole, M. S., Faloye, O., & Elueze, A. A. (2023). Source, Contamination Assessment and Risk Evaluation of Heavy Metals in the Stream Sediments of Rivers around Olode Area SW, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental & Earth Sciences, 5(1), 65–84.





Download data is not yet available.