Spatial and Temporal Variation of Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and Its Health Effects during the Haze Event in Malaysia


  • Afiqah Ma’amor

    Faculty of Civil Engineering & Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Jejawi, Arau, Perlis, 02600, Malaysia

  • Norazian Mohamed Noor

    Faculty of Civil Engineering & Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Jejawi, Arau, Perlis, 02600, Malaysia

  • Izzati Amani Mohd Jafri

    Sustainable Environment Research Group (SERG), Centre of Excellence Geopolymer and Technology (CEGeoGTech), Jejawi, Arau, Perlis, 02600, Malaysia

  • Nur Alis Addiena

    Sustainable Environment Research Group (SERG), Centre of Excellence Geopolymer and Technology (CEGeoGTech), Jejawi, Arau, Perlis, 02600, Malaysia

  • Ahmad Zia Ul Saufie

    Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Shah Alam, 40450, Malaysia

  • Nor Azrita Amin

    Institute of Engineering Mathematics, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra Campus, Arau, Perlis, 02600, Malaysia

  • Madalina Boboc

    National Institute for Research and Development in Environmental Protection INCDPM, Splaiul Independentei 294, Bucharest, 060031, Romania

  • Gyorgy Deak

    National Institute for Research and Development in Environmental Protection INCDPM, Splaiul Independentei 294, Bucharest, 060031, Romania

Received: 2 August 2023 | Revised: 3 October 2023 | Accepted: 8 October 2023 | Published Online: 16 October 2023


This study aims to assess and compare levels of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in urban and industrial areas in Malaysia during haze episodes, which typically occur in the south west monsoon season. The high concentrations of atmospheric particles are mainly due to pollution from neighbouring countries. Daily PM concentrations were analysed for urban and industrial areas including Alor Setar, Tasek, Shah Alam, Klang, Bandaraya Melaka, Larkin, Balok Baru, and Kuala Terengganu in 2018 and 2019. The analysis employed spatiotemporal to examine how PM levels were distributed. The data summary revealed that PM levels in all study areas were right-skewed, indicating the occurrence of high particulate events. Significant peaks in PM concentrations during haze events were consistently observed between June and October, encompassing the south west monsoon and inter-monsoon periods. The study on acute respiratory illnesses primarily focused on Selangor. Analysis revealed that Klang had the highest mean number of inpatient cases for acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma (AEBA) and acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) with values of 260.500 and 185.170, respectively. Similarly, for outpatient cases of AEBA and AECOPD, Klang had the highest average values of 41.67 and 14.00, respectively. Shah Alam and Sungai Buloh did not show a significant increase in cases during periods of biomass burning. The statistical analysis concluded that higher concentrations of PM were associated with increased hospital admissions, particularly from June to September, as shown in the bar diagram. Haze episodes were associated with more healthcare utilization due to haze-related respiratory illnesses, seen in higher inpatient and outpatient visits (p < 0.05). However, seasonal variability had minimal impact on healthcare utilization. These findings offer a comprehensive assessment of PM levels during historic haze episodes, providing valuable insights for authorities to develop policies and guidelines for effective monitoring and mitigation of the negative impacts of haze events.


Haze, Particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), AEBA and AECOPD, Spatial variability


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How to Cite

Ma’amor, A., Mohamed Noor, N., Amani Mohd Jafri, I., Alis Addiena, N., Zia Ul Saufie, A., Azrita Amin, N., Boboc, M., & Deak, G. (2023). Spatial and Temporal Variation of Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and Its Health Effects during the Haze Event in Malaysia. Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, 6(4), 26–47.


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