Estimating Chemical Concentrations of Dust PM2.5 in Iraq: A Climatic Perspective Using Polynomial Model and Remote Sensing Technology


  • Huda Jaml Jumaah

    Environment and Pollution Engineering Department, Technical Engineering College of Kirkuk, Northern Technical University, Kirkuk, 36001, Iraq

  • Maha Adnan Dawood

    Department of Fuel and Energy Engineering, College of Oil and Gas Techniques Engineering Kirkuk, Northern Technical University, Kirkuk, 36001, Iraq

  • Shakeel Mahmood

    Department of Geography, GC University Lahore, Lahore, Punjab, 54000, Pakistan

Received: 22 April 2024; Revised: 26 June 2024; Accepted: 30 June 2024; Published Online: 3 July 2024


Air pollution and climate change are interrelated issues, with air pollution levels in Iraq currently exceeding World Health Organization standards. This study aimed to evaluate air quality in Iraq by utilizing climatic data, such as temperature, humidity, and gaseous pollutants for assessing the health effects based on processed and estimated data. The research was conducted between August and November 2020, using remotely sensed images and geographical information techniques. Two methods; Geographic Information Systems GIS-based multiple regression and a polynomial model, were employed to estimate PM2.5 levels in the study area. The results showed a significant influence of climatic variables on air pollution in Iraq, with varying effects on PM2.5 estimation. The health impact ranged from good to unhealthy, with most provinces experiencing poor air quality. Southern parts of Iraq exhibited PM2.5 levels surpassing the healthy threshold. The predictive linear and polynomial model's accuracy was assessed through regression, yielding high correlation coefficients (R2 ) of 0.89, 0.95, 0.98, and 0.96 for August to November, respectively. While model validation accuracy ranged between 85–94 %. The study emphasizes the vital role of climate data in understanding the dispersion of air pollutants and their significant impacts on the environment. Addressing air pollution and climate change, as per the SGS-13 "Climate Action", are interconnected and require comprehensive strategies for mitigation.


Dust PM2.5; Advanced remote sensing; Polynomial model; Health impact; GIS


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How to Cite

Jaml Jumaah, H., Adnan Dawood, M., & Mahmood, S. (2024). Estimating Chemical Concentrations of Dust PM2.5 in Iraq: A Climatic Perspective Using Polynomial Model and Remote Sensing Technology. Journal of Atmospheric Science Research, 7(3), 44–56.


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