Examining the Effectiveness of Virtual Training under the Kirkpatrick Model: A Post-COVID Study


  • Neethu Suraj

    Institute of Management and Commerce, Srinivas University, Mangalore, 574146, India

  • Abhishek N

    Institute of Management and Commerce, Srinivas University, Mangalore, 574146, India


Received: 4 August 2023 | Revised: 16 September 2023 | Accepted: 19 September 2023 | Published Online: 8 October 2023


Teaching and training through online tools were used by most Higher Education Institute (HEIs) worldwide during COVID-19 to cater to the needs of students who stay far away from educational institutions. After the pandemic, the virtual model of education and training became a trend. The students and teachers are also more used to this trend which is giving more opportunities to both learners and instructors. One of the notable benefits of virtual teaching and learning platform is that it provides a flexible environment to gain knowledge, skills, and attitude simultaneously along with formal off-line education. From the earlier studies it is found that the majority of studies have focused on traditional, offline training methods and only a few studies have focused on virtual training. Therefore, the present study examined the effectiveness of virtual training using the Kirkpatrick model. For this purpose, a research instrument based on the Kirkpatrick model was constructed and distributed among the UG and PG students in Mangalore City. A total of 143 responses were collected, of which 132 were completed responses and all of them were considered for analysis. Descriptive statistics and one sample t-test are employed to analyse and interpret the data. The findings revealed that virtual training is more effective compared to traditional and offline training methods. Henceforth, the training and education provided through virtual platforms made significant contributions to the employability of youngsters.


Evaluation, Information technology, Kirkpatrick, Online training, Post-COVID, Training effectiveness


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How to Cite

Suraj, N., & N, A. (2023). Examining the Effectiveness of Virtual Training under the Kirkpatrick Model: A Post-COVID Study. Macro Management & Public Policies, 5(4), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.30564/mmpp.v5i4.5361


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