# Impedance, What It Is, How It Is Measured, and Why It Is Needed

## Authors

• V. K. Balkhanov Institute of Physical Materials Science of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

## Abstract

Impedance is the basic concept and quantity when measuring an electromagnetic field near the earth’s surface. It is shown how the antennas of the IPI device are oriented, and how the coordinate system is set. It is established why the phase difference of the electromagnetic field component is limited to the limits from zero to minus ninety degrees. The introduction of the basic electrophysical characteristics of a continuous medium - dielectric constant and electrical conductivity - is considered. For a homogeneous medium, the dependence of impedance on electrophysical quantities is given. The Riccati equation for impedance is given. Not only the horizontal arrangement of the electrical cable is considered, but also the vertical one. The latter allows you to explore the electrical parameters of the media.

## Keywords:

Impedance; MSI; Underlying medium; Logging

## References

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