Re-examination of Hydrochemistry and Groundwater Potentials of Cross River and Imo-Kwa-Ibo Intersecting Tropical Basins of SouthSouth Nigeria


  • Saadu Umar Wali Department of Geography, Federal University Birnin kebbi, P.M.B 1157. Kebbi State, Nigeria
  • Ibrahim Mustapha Dankani Department of Geography, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, P.M.B. 2346. Sokoto State, Nigeria.
  • Sheikh Danjuma Abubakar Department of Geography, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, P.M.B. 2346. Sokoto State, Nigeria.
  • Murtala Abubakar Gada Department of Geography, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, P.M.B. 2346. Sokoto State, Nigeria.
  • Kabiru Jega Umar Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Federal University Birnin kebbi, P.M.B 1157. Kebbi State, Nigeria
  • Abdulqadir Abubakar Usman Department of Geography, Federal University Birnin kebbi, P.M.B 1157. Kebbi State, Nigeria
  • Ibrahim Mohammad Shera Department of Geography, Federal University Birnin kebbi, P.M.B 1157. Kebbi State, Nigeria



This review attempted a detailed description of geological and hydrogeological configurations of Cross River and Imo-Akwa Ibo basins. It presented a synthesis of hydrochemistry and a description of the hydrogeological configurations of the two basins. Hydrogeologically, most areas under Cross River and Imo-Kwa-Ibo are poor in terms of groundwater potentials. Based on the hydrochemistry, the basins hold water of excellent quality. Groundwater sources fall in soft to moderately hard classes. The entire sources groundwater has a TDS concentration of less than 500 mg/l. Groundwater classification based on electrical conductivity (EC) showed EC levels were less than 500 µS/cm. Most of the examined cations and anions are within WHO reference guidelines for drinking water quality. However, no broadanalysis of water quality based on water quality indices. Also, studies modeling pollution or the impact of land use changes on groundwater quality are wanting. Thus, further analysis of the hydrochemistry of groundwater aquifers is recommended.


Cross River Basin; Imo-Kwa-Ibo Basin; Hydrogeology; Hydrochemistry


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How to Cite

Wali, S. U., Dankani, I. M., Abubakar, S. D., Gada, M. A., Umar, K. J., Usman, A. A., & Shera, I. M. (2020). Re-examination of Hydrochemistry and Groundwater Potentials of Cross River and Imo-Kwa-Ibo Intersecting Tropical Basins of SouthSouth Nigeria. Journal of Geological Research, 2(3), 25–42.


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