Environmental and Socio- Economic Impact of Wastewater in Wadi- Qana Drainage Basin- Salfeet- Palestine


  • Shawkat Naser Birzeit University, Geography Dep., P.O.Box 14, Birzeit West Bank, Palestine
  • Marwan Ghaleb Ghanem Birzeit University, Geography Dep., P.O.Box 14, Birzeit West Bank, Palestine




This study discussed the social- economic and environmental impacts of wastewater on Qana drainage basin. This study has been accomplished through carrying out biological and physio-chemical characterization for water samples from various springs in Qana valley in order to specify the quality of the springs’ water. Moreover, the socio-economic effects of wastewater on the population in the study area were discussed. The study was relied mainly on using the analytical field methodology to analyse the samples of the springs water. It also used the applied quantitative methodology to check the results of the questionnaire that was distributed between the farmers in Qana valley. The study has found that the flowing wastewater from the Israeli settlements that lie in the study area is regarded as the main source in polluting the underground water in the basin. The results also revealed that 84% of the population of the Palestinian villages that lie in Qana basin use open septic tanks  in getting rid of their wastewater then draining it in the nearby valleys which in turn increased the percentage of pollution. Moreover, results also pointed that 82% of Qana valley population has left their homes in Qana valley to the nearby villages because of the spread of bad smells in the valley. The results also revealed that 45.5% of Qana valley farmers have stopped planting their agricultural lands because of wastewater which in turn lowers the percentage of agricultural production. The analyses showed that all the springs in the study area are biologically polluted by the bacteria which is regarded as an indicator wastewater pollution. The chemical analyses also revealed that all elements lie within the allowed limits according to the World Health Organization except iron which exceeded the allowed limits in Al-Fawwar and Al-Maasser springs which indicates the pollution of these springs.


Qana, Salfeet, Spring, Wastewater pollution


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How to Cite

Naser, S., & Ghanem, M. G. (2018). Environmental and Socio- Economic Impact of Wastewater in Wadi- Qana Drainage Basin- Salfeet- Palestine. Journal of Geographical Research, 1(1), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.30564/jgr.v1i1.162


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