Impacts of Climate Variability on Sustainable Agriculture in Imo State, Nigeria


  • Ajiere S Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
  • Diagi B. E Departments of Environmental Management, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
  • Edokpa D. O Departments of Geography and Environmental Management, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria



Rainfall and Temperature are important factors in agriculture especially in Nigeria where rain-fed agriculture is practiced extensively and agriculture contributes to food security and provides employment for urban and rural dwellers. Therefore, climate variability represents a major danger to agriculture by modifying the rainfall and temperature pattern, thereby resulting to a big peril in the sustainability of agriculture. This is the reason all countries of the world are concerned about the effects of climate variability on agriculture. This work therefore, examined the impact of climate variability on rainfall and temperature in Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria. The rainfall and temperature data were gotten from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) for a period of 30 years which was analyzed by using descriptive statistics, decadal distribution, trend graph anomalies and 5 year moving average. The analysis showed increasing trend pattern in yearly maximum, minimum temperature and decrease in annual rainfall, The third order polynomial trend shows a decrease in the anomaly of annual mean rainfall (y = -0.0002x4) and a persistent increase in the mean temperature anomaly especially in the second decade (1996-2007).The discoveries show that there is a notable variability in temperature and rainfall pattern which revealed an increase in temperature and decrease in annual rainfall. This calls for serious attention as people in this part of Nigeria critically depend on rainfall for agricultural practices.It is recommended that government should support the agricultural sector by providing mechanized farming systems such as irrigation and drilling of water borehole in farm sites for agriculture, especially for the rural farmers and create awareness to the farmers on recent trends in climate issues to achieve sustainable agriculture.


Rainfall, Temperature, Climate variability, Sustainable agriculture, Imo State


[1] Nwajiuba C. U., Onyeneke R. Effects of climate change on the agriculture of sub-Saharan Africa:Lessons from Southeast Rainforest Zone of Nigeria.Oxford Business & Economics Conference Program.St. Hugh’s College, Oxford University, Oxford, UK,2010.

[2] Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC).Impact, Adaptation and vulnerability.Contribution of Working Group 1 of the intergovernmental panel on climate change to the Third Assessment Report of IPCC. London : Cambridge University Press, 2007.

[3] Apata T. G. Samuel, K. D., Adeola, A. O. Analysis of Climate change perception and Adaptation among Arable Food Crop Farmers in south Western Nigeria.Paper presented at the conference of International Association of Agricultural Economics, 2009:2-9.

[4] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation [Field, C.B.,V. Barros, T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, D.J. Dokken,K.L.Ebi, M.D. Mastrandrea, K.J. Mach, G.-K. Plattner,S.K. Allen, M. Tignor, and P.M.Midgley (eds.)]. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA,2012:555-564.

[5] World Meteorological Organization, 7 bis, avenue de la Paix, CP No. 2300, CH-1211 Geneva 2Switzerland, 2017.

[6] Umar, A.T. Recent Trends and Variability in the Length of the Growing Season in Northern Nigeria,Journal of Meteorology & Climate Science, 2010,8(1): 40-52.

[7] Lobell, D.B., Field, C.B. Global scale climate–crop yield relationships and the impacts of recent warming, Environmental research letters. 2007,2(1):014002.507

[8] Iizumi, T., Ramankutty, N. How do weather and climate influence cropping area and intensity? 508 Global Food Security, 2015, 4:46-50.509

[9] Ray, D.K., Gerber, J. S., MacDonald, G. K, West, P.C. Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability, Nature communications, 2015,6:5989.511

[10] Matsushita, K., Yamane, F. Asano, K. Linkage between crop diversity and agro-ecosystem resilience:;Nonmonotonic agricultural response under alternate regimes, Ecological Economics, 2016,126(C):23-31

[11] Budnuka, A.C., Tonubari, B.M., Chigozie, W. Temporal Variation of Rainfall Occurrence: The Effect on Tuber Crop Production in Niger Delta South-South,Nigeria, Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 2015, 8(4):14-18.

[12] Ayanlade, A., Odekunle, T.O., Orinmogunje, O.I.,Adeoye, N.O. Inter-annual Climate Variability and Crop Yields Anomalies in Middle Belt of Nigeria,Advances in Natural & Applied Sciences,2009 3(3):452-465.

[13] Atedhor, G. Growing Season Rainfall Trends Alterations and Drought Intensities in the Guinea Savanna Belt of Nigeria: Implications on Agriculture,Journal of Environment and Earth Science ISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online), 2016, 6(3):5.

[14] Ufoegbune, G.C., Fadipe, O.A., Bello, N.J., Eruola, A.O., Makinde, A.A. Growth and Development of Watermelon in Response to Seasonal Variation of Rainfall, J Climatol Weather Forecasting, 2014,2:117.DOI:

[15] Fidelis Chinazor Okorie1, John Didacus Njoku, Emmanuel Uzoma Onweremadu, Martin Chidinma Iwuji. climate change and food crop production in imo state nigeria: an analysis of 30 year period African Journal of Social and Behavioural Sciences (AJSBS),2019,9(2).ISSN: 2141-209X

[16] Ozor, N., Umunakwe, P. C., Ani, A. O., Nnadi, F. N.Perceived impacts of climate change among ural farmers in Imo State, Nigeria African Journal of Agricultural Research, 2015,10(14):1756-1764, 2 April,2015 Dol. 10(14):1756-1764, 2 April, 2015.DOI: Article Number:283CC2352338 ISSN 1991-637X

[17] Ajiere, S. l., Weli, V. E. Assessing the impact of climate change on Maize (Zea mays) and cassava (manihot esculenta) in Rivers State Nigeria, 2018,8(2):274-285 DOI:

[18] Abayomi, E., Niyi, B., Gideon U, Akeem M. Effect of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Crop Production in Tropical Wet-and Dry Climate, Italian Journal of Agrometeorology, 2013.

[19] Ajiere, S.I, Nwaerema, P. Assessment of Temperature and Rainfall Variability over South Eastern Nigeria:Implication to Flooding and Erosion Management,2019, 6(21). January-March,2020.

[20] Ajiere, S.I., Nwagbara, M.O. Effect of Climate Change on Maize (Zea-mays) and Cassava (Manihot-esculenta) Yields in Selected States of South Eastern Nigeria, JournalofAgricultureandCrops,2018, 4(2):185, URL:

[21] NIMET, Nigeria Climate Review Bulletin. Nigeria Meteorological Agency Abuja Nigeria, 2016.

[22] Oguntunde, P.G., Abiodun, B.J., Olukunle, O.J., Olu fayo, A.A. Trends and variability in pan evaporation and other climatic variables at Ibadan Nigeria, 1973-2008. Meteorological Applications, 2012, 19(4):464-472.

[23] Akinsanola A.A., Ogunjobi, K.O. Analysis of Rainfall and Temperature Variability over Nigeria’, Global Journal of human-social science: B Geography,Geo-Sciences, Environmental Disaster Management,2014,14(3), Version 1.0

[24] Schmidhuber, J., Tubiello, F. Global food security under climate change, National Acad Sciences PNAS,2007, 104 (50) 1970319708,


How to Cite

S, A., E, D. B., & O, E. D. (2021). Impacts of Climate Variability on Sustainable Agriculture in Imo State, Nigeria. Journal of Geographical Research, 4(1), 9–17.


Article Type



Download data is not yet available.