Assessment of Urban Morphology through Local Climate Zone Classification and Detection of the Changing Building States of Siliguri Municipal Corporation and Its Surrounding Area, West Bengal


  • Ivana Hoque Department of Geography and Applied Geography, University of North Bengal, West Bengal, India
  • Sushma Rohatgi Department of Geography and Applied Geography, University of North Bengal, West Bengal, India



Progressive population concentration to the urban centres has fuelled urban expansion in both horizontal as well as vertical direction, consequences in the urban landscape change. This growth resulted in posing many complexities towards sustainable urban development which can be counted by observing the changing proportions of natural landscapes and built up areas. Local climate zones (LCZs), a systematic classification of natural lands and built up lands, are identified in Siliguri Municipal Corporation (SMC) and its surrounding region to explore the spatio temporal complexity of urban growth in recent years. Rapid urbanization and population growth of SMC have led to change the building states from low rise to mid and high rise which added an important feature to the urban landscape dynamics of the area. The work intends to provide the vision of spatial urban morphology of the area through investigation of its changing land use and changing urban built space using the LCZ classification. The study shows that the WUDAPT method can accurately generate LCZs, especially the built type LCZs. The results of the proposed LCZ classification scheme are tested using error matrix for the year 2001 and 2021 having coefficient values of 0.79 and 0.81 respectively. The study explores the changing pattern of building states of SMC using LCZ products, which is essential for proper urban planning implementations.


LCZ classification, Urban land cover, SMC, Changing urban building types


[1] Akristiniy, V.A., Boriskina, Y.I., 2018. Vertical cities - the new form of high-rise construction evolution.E3S Web of Conferences 33.DOI:

[2] Lehnert, M., Geletič, J., Husák, J., et al., 2014. Urban field classification by “local climate zones” in a medium-sized Central European city: the case of Olomouc (Czech Republic). Theor Appl Climatol.122(3-4), 531-541.DOI:

[3] Song, J., Du, S., Feng, X., et al., 2014. The relationships between landscape compositions and land surface temperature: quantifying their resolution sensitivity with spatial regression models. Landscape and Urban Planning. 123, 145-157.DOI:

[4] Stewart, I.D., Oke, T.R., 2012. Local climate zones for urban temperature studies. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 93(12), 1879-1900.DOI:

[5] Ellefsen, R., 1991. Mapping and measuring buildings in the canopy boundary layer in ten US cities. Energy and Buildings. 16(3), 1025-1049.DOI:

[6] Oke, T.R., 2004. Initial Guidance to Obtain Representative Meteorological Observations at Urban Sites. WMO/TD No. 1250.

[7] Lelovics, E., Unger, J., Gál, T., et al., 2014. Design of an urban monitoring network based on local climate zone mapping and temperature pattern modelling.Climate Research. 60(1), 51-62.DOI:

[8] Gál, T., Bechtel, B., Unger, J., 2015. Comparison of two different Local Climate Zone mapping methods.Paper presented at the 9th International Conference on Urban Climate, Toulouse, France.

[9] Wang, R., Ren, C., Xu, Y., et al., 2018. Mapping the Local Climate Zones of urban areas by GIS based and WUDAPT methods: A case study of Hong Kong.Urban climate. 24, 567-576.DOI:

[10] Geletiˇc, J., Lehnert, M., Dobrovolný, P., 2016. Land Surface Temperature Differences within Local Climate Zones, Based on Two Central European Cities.Remote sensing. 8(10), 788.DOI:

[11] Geletiˇc, J., Lehnert, M., Savic, S., et al., 2019. Inter-/intra-zonal seasonal variability of the surface urban heat island based on local climate zones in three central European cities. Building and environment.156, 21-32.DOI:

[12] Fricke, C., Pongracz, R., Gal, T., et al., 2020. Using local climate zones to compare remotely sensed surface temperatures in temperate cities and hot desert cities. Moravian geographical reports. 28(1), 48-60.DOI:

[13] Leconte, F., Bouyer, J., Claverie, R., et al., 2015. Using local climate zone scheme for UHI assessment:evaluation of the method using mobile measurements. Build. Environ. 83, 39-49.DOI:

[14] Xu, Y., Ren, C., Cai, M., et al., 2017. Classification of Local Climate Zones Using ASTER and Landsat Data for High-Density Cities. IJSTAEORS. 10(7),3397-3405. DOI:

[15] Zheng, Y., Ren, C., Yong, X., et al., 2017. GIS-based mapping of Local Climate Zone in the high-density city of Hong Kong. Urban climate. pp.1-30.DOI:

[16] Bechtel, B., Daneke, C., 2012. Classification of local climate zones based on multiple earth observation data. IEEE J. Selected Topics Appl. Earth Observat.and Remote Sensing. 5(4), 1191-1202.DOI:

[17] Alexander, P.J., Mills, G., Fealy, R., 2015. Using LCZ data to run an urban energy balance model. Urban Climate. 13, 14-37.DOI:

[18] Danylo, O., See, L., Bechtel, B., et al., 2016. Contributing to WUDAPT: a local climate zone classification of two cities in Ukraine. IEEE J. Sel. Topics Appl. Earth Observations Remote Sens. 9(5), 1841-1853.DOI:

[19] Ren, C., Cai, M., Li, X., et al., 2019. Assessment of Local Climate Zone Classification Maps of Cities in China and Feasible Refinements. Scientific Reports.9(1).DOI:

[20] Lambin, E.F., Turner, B.L., Geist, H.J., et al., 2001.The causes of land-use and land-cover change:moving beyond the myths. Global Environmental Change. 11(4), 261-269.DOI:

[21] Rindfuss, R.R., Walsh, S.J., Turner, B.L., et al., 2004.Developing a science of land change:challenges and methodological issues. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.101(39), 13976-13981.DOI:

[22] Gutman, G., Janetos, A.C., Justice, C.O., et al., 2004.Land change science: Observing, monitoring and understanding trajectories of change on the earth's surface. Dordrecht; New York: Springer.

[23] Das, M., Das, A., 2019. Estimation of Ecosystem Services (EESs) loss due to transformation of Local Climatic Zones (LCZs) in Sriniketan-Santiniketan Planning Area (SSPA)West Bengal, India.Sustainable cities and society. 47, 1-13.DOI:

[24] Brousse, O., Martilli, A., Foley, M., et al., 2016.WUDAPT, an efficient land use producing data tool for mesoscale models? Integration of urban LCZ in WRF over Madrid. Urban Climate. 17,116-134.DOI:

[25] Ng, Y.X., 2015. A study of urban heat island using “Local Climate Zones” — the case of Singapore.British Journal of Environment & Climate Change.5(2), 116-133.DOI:

[26] Perera, N.G.R., Emmanueal, R., Mahanama, P.K.S.,2012. 576: mapping “Local Climate Zones” and relative warming effects in Colombo, Sri Lanka. ICUC8-8th International Conference on Urban Climates.Dublin, Ireland.

[27] Perera, N.G.R, Emmanuel, R., 2016. A “Local Climate Zone” based approach to urban planning in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Urban Climate. 23, 188-203.DOI:

[28] Mushore, T.D., Dube, T., Manjowe, M., et al., 2019.Remotely sensed retrieval of Local Climate Zones and their linkages to land surface temperature in Harare metropolitan city, Zimbabwe. Urban Climate.27, 259-271.DOI:

[29] Kotharkar, R., Bagade, A., 2018. Local Climate Zone classification for Indian cities: a case study of Nagpur. Urban Climate. 24, 369-392.DOI:

[30] Bechtel, B., Alexander, P.J., Böhner, J., et al., 2015.Mapping Local Climate Zones for a Worldwide Database of the Form and Function of Cities. ISPRS Int.J.Geo-Inf. 4(1), 191-219.DOI:

[31] Anjos, M., Targino, A.C., Krecl, P., et al., 2020.Analysis of the urban heat island under different synoptic patterns using local climate zones. Building and Environment. pp.185.DOI:

[32] Cai, M., Ren, C., Xu, Y., et al., 2018. Investigating the relationship between local climate zone and land surface temperature using an improved WUDAPT methodology - A case study of Yangtze River Delta,China. Urban climate. 24, 485-502.DOI:

[33] Ching, J., Mills, G., Bechtel, B., et al., 2018. World Urban Database and Access Portal Tools (WUDAPT),an urban weather, climate and environmental modeling infrastructure for the Anthropocene. Bulletin of American meteorological society. pp.1-50.DOI:

[34] Böhner, J., MacCloy, K.R., 2006. SAGA-analysis and modelling applications. Göttingen: Goltze. 115, 1-121.

[35] Liaw, A., Wiener, M., 2002. Classification and regression by random Forest. R News. 2(3), 18-22.

[36] Simandan, D., 2011. The wise stance in human geography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers.36(2), 188-192.

[37] Simandan, D., 2002. On what it takes to be a good geographer. Area. 34(3), 284-293.

[38] Simandan, D., 2018. Competition, contingency, and destabilization in urban assemblages and actor-networks. Urban Geography. 39(5), 655-666.

[39] Simandan, D., 2020. Being surprised and surprising ourselves: a geography of personal and social change. Progress in Human Geography. 44(1), 99-118.

[40] Allmendinger, P., 2017. Planning theory. Macmillan International Higher Education. Economics. 51(5),569-582.

[41] Allmendinger, P., 2001. Planning in postmodern times (No. 1). Psychology Press.

[42] Allmendinger, P., 2002. Towards a post-positivist typology of planning theory. Planning theory. 1(1), 77-99.

[43] Allmendinger, P., 2006. Zoning by stealth? The diminution of discretionary planning.International Planning Studies. 11(2), 137-143.


How to Cite

Hoque, I., & Rohatgi, S. (2022). Assessment of Urban Morphology through Local Climate Zone Classification and Detection of the Changing Building States of Siliguri Municipal Corporation and Its Surrounding Area, West Bengal. Journal of Geographical Research, 5(2), 28–43.


Article Type



Download data is not yet available.