Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Surface Water in Ikoli River and Epie Creek in Yenagoa Metropolis Using Geographical Information System


  • Egai Ayibawari O. Department of Geology, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
  • Edirin Akpofure Department of Geology, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
  • Digha Opaminola Nicholas Department of Geography, Jasper Boro College of Education Sagbama, Nigeria



The article is the investigation of heavy metals pollution on surface water in Ikoli River and Epie creek in Yenagoa, metropolis, Bayelsa State. Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Fe, Zn was determined and evaluated using Geographical Information System. Zinc concentration was below the permissible limit of 3 mg/L in all the locations sampled. Iron is 77.78% below the limit of WHO 2011 of 0.3 mg/L while other heavy metals examined in Ikoli River and Epie creek are highly polluted. The pollution index for contamination index shows 11.11% sample are high and 88.89% are low while the evaluation of heavy metal index and the pollution index load of the heavy metals contain 22.11% of the sample are low and 77.78% are high which imply the Ikoli River and Epie creek is polluted. Multivariate treatment of the result revealed a good correlation between the PCA and HCA, which showed activities of natural processes and man influenced environmental sources of the heavy metals which were mainly products of automobiles exhaust, water tank leakages as well as dumping of radioactive wastes and burning. The study investigated successfully the potential use of GIS with the help of multiple criteria decision analysis to predict and characterize areas of high pollution, medium, and low pollution in the study area.


Multivariate treatment, GIS, Pollution index, Anthropogenic, Geogenic, Ikoli river, Epie Creek


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How to Cite

O., E. A., Akpofure, E., & Nicholas, D. O. (2022). Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in Surface Water in Ikoli River and Epie Creek in Yenagoa Metropolis Using Geographical Information System. Journal of Geographical Research, 5(3), 49–62.





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