Understanding the Challenges of Implementing Green Roofs in Multi-Family Apartment Buildings: A Case Study in Khulna


  • Ishmat Ara

    Department of Architecture, Northern University of Business and Technology Khulna, Khulna, 9100, Bangladesh

  • Sourav Zaman

    Department of Architecture, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj, 8100, Bangladesh




Green roofs are widely recognized for their multifaceted benefits to the environment, economy, and society, constituting the fundamental pillars of sustainability. These roofs contribute to the enhancement of bio-physical diversity, provision of food resources, regulation of temperature and rainfall-runoff patterns, creation of wildlife habitats, and augmentation of aesthetic and recreational value. While Bangladesh, with its favourable climatic conditions and rapid urbanization, possesses immense potential for harnessing the advantages of green roofs, their adoption remains limited in both research and practical applications within the country. Addressing this research gap, the present study aims to investigate the barriers impeding the implementation of green roofs in existing or new multi-family apartment buildings, focusing specifically on the city of Khulna. Through a combination of case studies and a comprehensive questionnaire survey administered to diverse stakeholders including apartment dwellers/owners, architects, developers, and government officials with varying levels of expertise, this research sheds light on the obstacles hindering Green Roof Implementation (GRI). The identified barriers encompass a lack of governmental policies, inadequate technological advancements, inaccurate estimation of economic benefits, and individual resistance. In light of the perspectives of various GRI stakeholders, strategic proposals encompassing policy, technical, economic, and social dimensions are presented to surmount these barriers. The outcomes of this study contribute to the dissemination of knowledge pertaining to the impediments to GRI implementation, thereby inspiring further research endeavours and enabling decision-makers to formulate robust policies facilitating the widespread adoption of green roofs.


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How to Cite

Ara, I., & Zaman, S. (2023). Understanding the Challenges of Implementing Green Roofs in Multi-Family Apartment Buildings: A Case Study in Khulna. Journal of Architectural Environment & Structural Engineering Research, 6(3), 17–30. https://doi.org/10.30564/jaeser.v6i3.5844


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