Study of Spatial Disorientation and Wayfinding Challenges in Buildings Using Axial Analysis: A Case of Hospital Buildings in Nigeria


  • Akubue Jideofor Anselm

    Department of Architecture, Baze University Abuja, 900108, Nigeria

  • Salman Mohammed

    Department of Architecture, Baze University Abuja, 900108, Nigeria

  • Salihu Tyabo

    Department of Architecture, Baze University Abuja, 900108, Nigeria

  • Abdulkadir Mohammed

    Department of Architecture, Baze University Abuja, 900108, Nigeria



All living creatures rely on spatial orientation to navigate through familiar environments. For humans, everyday activities depend on spatial orientation for navigating routes from outside locations to final destinations. The study suggests that the larger buildings get, the more the challenges of spatial orientation for their users. Likewise, building forms and configurations impact significantly on the course of wayfinding. In the case of hospitals, spatial configuration has been identified as significant in influencing human movements, performances of users and efficiency of services. This paper analyses the layout configurations of selected large hospital buildings in Nigeria using axial lines and relates the analysis with spatial orientation and wayfinding process. The aim of the study was to identify the extent of the impact of building layout configuration on spatial orientation and wayfinding process. The three large-sized hospitals selected for the study presented different scenarios which identified simplicities and complexities of building layout configurations as significant in the process of wayfinding. A comparative summary of the three hospitals in the study suggests that the less complex hospital layout presented the least spatial disorientation effect. This is mostly due to the linear sightlines utilized in the layout configuration design with fewer turns that enable visual connectivity to destination points thus indicating lesser challenges for wayfinding.


Spatial orientation; Wayfinding; Spatial disorientation; Wayfinding challenges; Axial analysis; Axial map


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How to Cite

Jideofor Anselm, A., Mohammed, S., Tyabo, S., & Mohammed, A. (2024). Study of Spatial Disorientation and Wayfinding Challenges in Buildings Using Axial Analysis: A Case of Hospital Buildings in Nigeria. Journal of Architectural Environment & Structural Engineering Research, 7(1), 20–33.


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