A Periphrastic Glance at Pre-Service and Basic Education ESL Teachers' Attitude toward PhilE and AmE


  • Nimfa G. Dimaculangan

    College of Teacher Education, Laguna State Polytechnic University, Santa Cruz Campus, 4009, Philippines

  • Michelle B. Sarmiento

    College of Teacher Education, Laguna State Polytechnic University, San Pablo City Campus, 4000, Philippines

  • Ma. Cezanne D. Dimaculangan

    College of Arts and Sciences, Laguna State Polytechnic University, Santa Cruz Campus, 4009, Philippines


Received: 9 May 2024 | Revised: 23 May 2024 | Accepted: 31 May 2024 | Published Online: 25 June 2024


Studies on attitudes toward Philippine English and American English have been done; however, the attitudes were examined through direct methods like interviews, survey questionnaires, and acceptability tests for the new vocabularies. The present study employs indirect means, such as the Matched-Guised Technique (MGT), to determine the attitude of pre-service and high school ESL teachers toward spoken PhilE and AmE. It utilizes well acknowledged views on attitude in determining the subjects' attitudes toward the speakers. Analysis shows that the judges have positive attitudes toward the PhilE and AmE. The findings differ from the results of previous studies that utilized direct methods of determining attitudes, which revealed the subjects' ambivalent attitude towards PhilE because of their preference for AmE. The paper recommends more seminars on World Englishes (WE) and PhilE in areas where English speakers are not yet open to such language phenomena. It supports earlier scholars' recommendations of inclusion or integration of WE and PhilE in ESL and EFL classrooms and promotion of the Englishes spoken across the globe with respect.


World Englishes; Philippine English; Language attitudes; Matched-guise technique; English language education


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