Implementation of Self-regulated Learning Writing Module: Amplifying Motivation and Mitigating Anxiety among EFL Learners

Authors

  • Jing Sun

    Faculty of Social Sciences, Education Department, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, 56000, Malaysia;

    Zhengzhou Normal University, Zhengzhou, 450011, China

  • Saeid Motevalli

    Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology Department, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, 56000, Malaysia

  • Nee Nee Chan

    Faculty of Social Sciences, Education Department, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, 56000, Malaysia

  • Ali Khodi

    Faculty of Social Sciences, Education Department, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, 56000, Malaysia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.30564/fls.v6i3.6600
Received: 11 March 2024 | Revised: 13 April May 2024 | Accepted: 25 Apri 2024 | Published Online: 17 June 2024

Abstract

EFL learners often face difficulties in their writing performance, motivation, and writing anxiety when engaging in the writing process. To address these issues, a Self-regulated Learning Writing Module (SRLWM) was developed to assist EFL learners in their writing tasks. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the SRLWM on the writing performance, anxiety levels, and motivation of college-level EFL learners. The study involved a total of 70 EFL learners from a university in Henan Province, China, and utilized a quasi-experimental design with an experimental SRLWM group and a control group. The participants underwent eight weeks of SRLWM training. Pretests and posttests were conducted to assess the participants’ writing performance, motivation, and writing anxiety, and the data were analyzed using a two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U test. The results revealed a significant improvement in both writing performance and motivation among the participants in the SRLWM group, accompanied by a notable decrease in writing anxiety. These improvements were considerably different from the outcomes observed in the control group. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that SRL is an effective tool for EFL writing instruction. Consequently, the integration of SRLWM into EFL writing classes can be highly beneficial. Further research in this area could focus on dynamically tracking learners’ progress in writing, as well as their levels of writing anxiety and motivation, by employing action research methodologies.

Keywords:

Anxiety; EFL Learners; Literacy; Motivation; Writing Self-Regulation; Social Inclusion; Sustainability

References

Abdi, F., 2017. The comparative effect of portfolio and summative assessments on EFL learners’ writing ability, anxiety, and autonomy. Journal of Language Teaching and Research. 8(4), 823–834. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/jltr.0804.24

Alavi, S.M., Karami, H., Khodi, A., 2023. Examination of factorial structure of Iranian English language proficiency test: An IRT analysis of Konkur examination. Current Psychology. 42(10), 8097–8111. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-01922-1

Aldabbus, S., Almansouri, E., 2022. Academic writing difficulties encountered by university EFL learners. British Journal of English Linguistics. 10(3), 1–11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.37745/bjel.2013

Alfiansyah, F., Jaufillaili, J., Hendriwanto., H., 2017. The analysis of students’ anxiety in learning writing at the 10th grade of vocational high school. LEKSIKA, 46–57.

Bai, B., Guo, W., Wang, C., 2022. Relationships between struggling EFL writers’ motivation, self-regulated learning (SRL), and writing competence in Hong Kong primary schools. Applied Linguistics Review. 15(1). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2020-0131

Bisriyah, M., 2022. EFL University students’ difficulties in the essay writing process. Scope: Journal of English Language Teaching. 7(1), 66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.30998/scope.v7i1.13793

Bruning, R., Dempsey, M., Kauffman, D.F., et al., 2013. Examining dimensions of self-efficacy for writing. Journal of Educational Psychology. 105(1), 25–38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029692

Camacho, A., 2021. Writing Motivation in School: A Systematic Review of Empirical Research in the Early Twenty-First Century. Educational Psychology Review. 33, 213–247. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-020-09530-4

Chen, A., 2022. The effects of writing strategy instruction on EFL learners’ writing development. English Language Teaching. 15(3), 29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v15n3p29

Cheng, Y.S., 2004. A measure of second language writing anxiety: Scale development and preliminary validation. Journal of Second Language Writing. 13(4), 313–335. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2004.07.001

Deng, J., Zhou, K., Al-Shaibani, G.K.S., 2022. Medical English anxiety patterns among medical students in Sichuan, China. Language Sciences, Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 895117. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.895117

Golparvar, S.E., Khafi, A., 2021. The role of L2 writing self-efficacy in integrated writing strategy use and performance. Assessing Writing. 47, 100504. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2020.100504

Graham, S., Harbaugh-Schattenkirk, A.G., Aitken, A., et al., 2022. Writing motivation questionnaire: Validation and application as a formative assessment. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. 29(2), 238–261. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0969594X.2022.2080178

Graham, S., Kiuhara, S.A., Harris, K.R., et al., 2017. The relationship among strategic writing behavior, writing motivation, and writing performance with young, developing writers. The Elementary School Journal. 118(1), 82–104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/693009

Han, Y., Zhao, S., Ng, L.-L., 2021. How Technology Tools Impact Writing Performance, Lexical Complexity, and Perceived Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in EFL Academic Writing: A Comparative Study. Frontiers in Psychology. 12, 752793. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.752793

Hayes, J.R., Flower, L., 1981. Uncovering Cognitive Processes in Writing: An Introduction to Protocol Analysis. ERIC Clearinghouse. pp. 207–220.

Ka-kan-dee, M., Al-Shaibani, G.K.S., 2018. Tourism Students’ Oral Presentation Anxiety: A Case Study. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 26 (T), pp. 231-256.

Khalilzadeh, S., Khodi, A., 2021. Teachers’ personality traits and students’ motivation: A structural equation modeling analysis. Current Psychology. 40(4), 1635–1650. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-0064-8

Khodi, A., Alavi, S.M., Karami, H., 2021. Test review of Iranian university entrance exam: English Konkur examination. Language testing in Asia. 11(1), 14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40468-021-00125-6

Khodi, A., 2021. The affectability of writing assessment scores: A G-theory analysis of rater, task, and scoring method contribution. Language Testing in Asia. 11(1), 30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40468-021-00134-5

Khodi, A., Khezerlou, H., Sahraei, H., 2022. Dependability and utility of using e-portfolios in assessing EFL learners’ speaking proficiency. Computer Assisted Language Learning. 1–23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2022.2093379

Khodi, A., Ponniah, L.S., Farrokhi, A.H., et al., 2024. Test review of Iranian English language proficiency test: MSRT test. Language Testing in Asia. 14(1), 4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40468-023-00270-0

Kouhpeyma, Y., Kashefian-Naeeini, S., 2020. The effects of reflective writing on EFL learners’ writing performance. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding. 7(8), 414–425.

Li, H., Tofigh, A.M., Amirfakhraei, A., et al., 2022. Modulation of astrocyte activity and improvement of oxidative stress through blockage of NO/NMDAR pathway improve posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like behavior induced by social isolation stress. Brain and Behavior, 12(7), e2620.

Liu, H., Zhong, Y., 2022. English learning burnout: Scale validation in the Chinese context. Frontiers in Psychology. 13, 1054356. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.1054356

Listyani, L., 2022. Exploring Indonesian EFL writing students’ differences in motivation: A language learning journey to success. Journal of Language Teaching and Research. 13(2), 406–416. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17507/jltr.1302.23

Ma, J., Dong, P., 2018. A study on foreign language writing anxiety in the background of big data. TEFLE. 180, 32–37. (in Chinese).

Mojdehi, H.A., Zarei, A.A., 2023. The impact of different scaffolding techniques on IELTS candidates’ writing anxiety: From perceptions to facts. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction. 40, 100715. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lcsi.2023.100715

Motevalli, S., Salahshour, H.M., Bailey, R.P., 2023. The mediating role of cognitive flexibility in the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and mindfulness in patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of affective disorders, 339, 676-682.

Ng, C., Graham, S., Liu, X., et al., 2021. Relationships between writing motives, writing self-efficacy and time on writing among Chinese students: Path models and cluster analyses. Reading and Writing. 35, 427–455. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-021-10190-1

Nückles, M., Roelle, J., Glogger-Frey, I., et al., 2020. The self-regulation-view in writing-to-learn: using journal writing to optimize cognitive load in self-regulated learning. Educational Psychology Review. 32(4), 1089–1126. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-020-09541-1

Pham, Q.H.P., 2023. A goal-based writing program in the EFL writing context: Implementation and results. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching. 17(2), 278–290. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2021.2025381

Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED) [Internet]. A manual for the use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) [cited May 1, 2024]. Available from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED338122

Pintrich, P.R., 2000. The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. Handbook of Self-Regulation. Academic Press. 451–502. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012109890-2/50043-3

Quvanch, Z., Si Na, K., 2022. Evaluating Afghanistan University students’ writing anxiety in English class: An empirical research. Cogent Education. 9(1), 2040697. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2022.2040697

Rashid, Md. H., Ye, T., Hui, W., et al., 2021. Analyse and challenges of teaching writing among the English teachers. Linguistics and Culture Review. 6, 199–209. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21744/lingcure.v6nS2.2004

Rasuan, Z., Wati, L., 2021. Students’ writing anxiety and its correlation with their writing performance. EEdJ: English Education Journal. 1(1), 20–29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32923/eedj.v1i1.1773

Shen, B., Bai, B., 2024. Chinese university students’ self-regulated writing strategy use and EFL writing performance: Influences of self-efficacy, gender, and major. Applied Linguistics Review. 15(1), 161–188. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2020-0103

Shen, B., Bai, B., Park, M., 2020. Exploring Hong Kong primary students’ English writing motivation: Relationships between writing self-efficacy and task value. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 44(4), 324–338. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2020.1823397

Siregar, S.P.E., Sari, F., Sudjoko, S., et al., 2022. Dealing with English writing skills: Through the eyes of vocational students. Eureka: Journal of Educational Research. 1(1), 18–28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.56773/ejer.v1i1.3

Sulaiman, T., Ibrahim, A., Motevalli, S., et al., 2021. Effect of e-evaluation on work motivation among teachers during the movement control order in COVID-19: The mediating role of stress. Interactive Technology and Smart Education. 18(3), 435–449. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/ITSE-05-2020-0066

Sumarsono, D., Bagis, A.K., Arrafii, Moh. A., 2017. Students’ needs to develop english writing materials. Lingua Cultura. 11(2), 67–71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21512/lc.v11i2.1504

Sun, B., Fan, T., 2022. The effects of an AWE-aided assessment approach on business English writing performance and writing anxiety: A contextual consideration. Studies in Educational Evaluation. 72, 101123. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2021.101123

Sun, J., Motevalli, S., 2023. Self-Regulated Learning Writing Module. UCSI Press: UCSI Heights 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Sun, T., Wang, C., 2020. College students’ writing self-efficacy and writing self-regulated learning strategies in learning English as a foreign language. System. 90, 102221. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102221

Syam, A.T., 2020. Developing writing module for the fourth-semester learners of english department at state islamic institute of Palopo. IJELTAL (Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics). 5(1), 17–28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21093/ijeltal.v5i1.548

Teng, F., 2020. Tertiary-level students’ english writing performance and metacognitive awareness: a group metacognitive support perspective. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. 64(4), 551–568. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2019.1595712

Teng, F., Huang, J., 2019. Predictive effects of writing strategies for self-regulated learning on secondary school learners’ EFL writing proficiency. TESOL Quarterly. 53(1), 232–247. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.462

Teng, L.S., 2021. Individual differences in self-regulated learning: Exploring the nexus of motivational beliefs, self-efficacy, and SRL strategies in EFL writing. Language Teaching Research. 28(2), 13621688211006881. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/13621688211006881

Teng, L.S., 2022. Explicit strategy-based instruction in L2 writing contexts: A perspective of self-regulated learning and formative assessment. Assessing Writing. 53, 100645. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2022.100645

Teng, L.S., 2022. Self-regulated Learning and Second Language Writing: Fostering strategic language learners. Springer Cham: CHAM, SWITZERLAND. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-99520-1

Teng, L.S., Zhang, L.J., 2016. A questionnaire-based validation of multidimensional models of self-regulated learning strategies. The Modern Language Journal. 100(3), 674–701. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12339

Teng, L.S., Zhang, L.J., 2016. Fostering strategic learning: the development and validation of the Writing Strategies for Motivational Regulation Questionnaire (WSMRQ). The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher. 25(1), 123–134. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-015-0243-4

Teng, L.S., Zhang, L.J., 2020. Empowering learners in the second/foreign language classroom: Can self-regulated learning strategies-based writing instruction make a difference? Journal of Second Language Writing. 48, 100701. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2019.100701

Teng, M.F., Wang, C., Zhang, L.J., 2022. Assessing self-regulatory writing strategies and their predictive effects on young EFL learners’ writing performance. Assessing Writing. 51, 100573. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2021.100573

Tsao, J.-J., 2021. Effects of EFL Learners’ L2 Writing Self-efficacy on Engagement with Written Corrective Feedback. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher. 30, 575–584. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40299-021-00591-9

Vattøy, K.-D., Gamlem, S.M., 2023. Students’ experiences of peer feedback practices as related to awareness raising of learning goals, self-monitoring, self-efficacy, anxiety, and enjoyment in teaching EFL and mathematics. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. 1–15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2023.2192772

Wang, E., Baras, Y., Buttenheim, A.M., 2015. “Everybody just wants to do what’s best for their child”: Understanding how pro-vaccine parents can support a culture of vaccine hesitancy. Vaccine. 33(48), 6703–6709.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.10.090

Wang, W., Zhan, J., 2020. The Relationship between English Language Learner Characteristics and Online Self-regulation: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach. Sustainability. 12(7), 3009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12073009

Wang, X., Ma, J., Li, X., et al., 2023. Validation of self-regulated writing strategies for advanced EFL learners in china: a structural equation modeling analysis. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education. 13(4), 776–795. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe13040059

Wang, Y., Xu, J., Li, H., et al., 2024. The impact of future L2 selves and positive emotions on self-regulated writing strategies: A mixed method approach. Language Teaching Research. 13621688241229534.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/13621688241229

Wei, B., Dipolog-Ubanan, G.F., Khodi, A., et al., 2024. The Effect of Learning Strategy and Self-Efficacy on Speaking Competence of Higher Vocational College Students: Anxiety as a Mediator. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 30(5), 12343-12353.

Winne, P.H., Jamieson-Noel, D., Muis, K., 2002. Methodological issues and advances in researching tactics, strategies, and self-regulated learning. New directions in measures and methods. JAI Press: Greenwich CT, USA. pp. 121–155.

Woottipong, K., 2020. Investigation into Thai high school learners’ self-regulated learning skills, self-efficacy and writing performance. Research in Pedagogy. 10(1), 32–49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5937/IstrPed2001032W

Zabihi, R., Mehrani-Rad, M., Khodi, A., 2019. Assessment of authorial voice strength in L2 argumentative written task performances: Contributions of voice components to text quality. Journal of Writing Research. 11(2), 331–355.DOI: https://doi.org/10.17239/jowr-2019.11.02.04

Zhang, J., Zhang, L.J., 2023. Examining the relationship between English as a foreign language learners’ cognitive abilities and L2 grit in predicting their writing performance. Learning and Instruction. 88, 101808. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2023.101808

Zimmerman, B.J., 2000. Attaining Self-Regulation: A social cognitive perspective. Handbook of Sefl-Regulation. Academic Press. 13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012109890-2/50031-7

Zimmerman, B.J., Cleary, T.J., 2009. Motives to self-regulate learning: A social-cognitive account. Handbook of Motivation at School. Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group. 247–264.

Zumbrunn, S., Broda, M., Varier, D., wt al., 2020. Examining the multidimensional role of self‐efficacy for writing on student writing self‐regulation and grades in elementary and high school. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 90(3), 580–603. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12315

Downloads