The effects of input flood and input enhancement techniques in teaching collocations to EFL learners


  • Bunyamin Celik

    English Language Teaching Department, Tishk International University, Erbil-KRI 44001, Iraq



Input flood and input enhancement are two prominent techniques to develop learners’ writing competence. While the former refers to offering multiple sources to increase students’ gains, the latter implies highlighting certain linguistic items to attract attention. A plethora of studies have been conducted to measure the effectiveness of both techniques. However, a gap in the literature has been noticed in comparing input flood with input enhancement technique in terms of writing improvement in Iraq. Thus, the present study was conducted to measure the impacts of the input flood technique to teach collocations on 48 EFL learners who joined an intensive language learning program at the Language Preparatory School of Tishk International University in Erbil, Iraq. Participants, chosen by convenience sampling method, were exposed to input flood or input enhancement techniques to expand their colloquial expression knowledge within six weeks in the 2022–2023 academic year spring semester. Data were collected via writing exams and interviews as a part of the explanatory sequential research design. The findings, analyzed by SPSS 27 and MAXQDA, revealed that experimental group students who received the instruction via input flood increased their writing marks more significantly than control group students whose instruction was via input enhancement. Likewise, students who received the instruction with input flood had more positive views than students receiving input enhancement. The findings of the study may have several implications for educators who think about teaching collocations via input flood and input enhancement techniques professionally.


academic writing; input flood; input enhancement; vocabulary breadth


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