Investigation of Environmental and Biological Effects of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) with a Special Focus on Industrial and Mining Pollutions in Iran: A Review


  • Aref Shirazi

    Department of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran

  • Adel Shirazy

    Department of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran

  • Amin Beiranvand Pour

    Institute of Oceanography and Environment (INOS), Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), Malaysia

  • Ardeshir Hezarkhani

    Department of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran

  • Shayan Khakmardan

    Department of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran



The present article is a review study on the types of rare earth elements (REEs), environmental and biological effects as well as the sources of emission of these elements as pollution in nature. The purpose of this study is to provide a vision in environmental planning and control of pollution caused by REEs. The evaluation of rare earth elements was studied in human life and its environmental and biological effects, which have particular importance and are entering the life cycle through industrial and mining pollution sources. Since mining activities intensify the dispersion of these elements in the environment and the existence of industrial factories located around urban drainage system plays a unique role in creating and spreading pollution caused by rare earth elements; As a result, two case studies were conducted on two mining and industrial areas. The first case is the Choghart mine in Yazd province as an example of mining pollution,and the second case study is performed on the Kor river as an example of industrial pollution which is caused by industrial activities around it, Then the results are well explained to show both two environments of litho and hydro. Due to this fact that produced environmental pollution can cause exchange pollutant compounds with the surrounding environment besides its long-lasting destructive effects; It can cause irreversible biological effects on living organisms. By targeting this evaluation, several techniques can be proposed to prevent the entry and dispersal of rare earth elements from pollution sources besides methods to reduce the damage of these elements to the ecosystem.


Environment; Rare earth elements; Pollution; Disease; Kor river; Choghart mine; Life cycle


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How to Cite

Shirazi, A., Shirazy, A., Pour, A. B., Hezarkhani, A., & Khakmardan, S. (2022). Investigation of Environmental and Biological Effects of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) with a Special Focus on Industrial and Mining Pollutions in Iran: A Review. Advances in Geological and Geotechnical Engineering Research, 4(1), 1–10.


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