Toxicity of Radon-222 in Groundwater across Keana in Nasarawa, Nigeria


  • Abubakar Saidu Bako

    Department of Physics, Nasarawa State University, PMB 1022 Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

  • Usman Rilwan

    Department of Physics, Nigerian Army University, PMB 1500 Biu, Borno State, Nigeria

  • Ibrahim Umar

    Department of Physics, Nasarawa State University, PMB 1022 Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

  • Samson Dauda Yusuf

    Department of Physics, Nasarawa State University, PMB 1022 Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

  • Idris Muhammad Mustapha

    Department of Physics, Nasarawa State University, PMB 1022 Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

  • Abdullahi Abubakar Mundi

    Department of Physics, Nasarawa State University, PMB 1022 Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

  • Ibrahim Maina

    Department of Physics, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, PMB 0248 Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Received: 31 March 2023 | Revised: 19 April 2023 | Accepted: 21 April 2023 | Published Online: 28 April 2023


The most common supply of freshwater for drinking, irrigation, and other domestic uses is groundwater; however, because of increased radon concentrations brought on by mining activities, its quality is still a severe concern. Using a liquid scintillation detector, this study investigated the radon content, its related toxicity, and its risk to human health in the groundwater of the Keana in Nasarawa, Nigeria. Ten (10) borehole samples and five (5) well samples totaling fifteen (15) groundwater samples were taken. The results showed that the average radon concentration in water samples from Keana was 2.25 Bq/L. The mean annual effective dosage (ingestion) for adults and children in Keana was 0.016 mSv/y and 0.027 mSv/y, respectively. In Keana, the additional lifetime cancer risk per adult was 5.65 × 10–5, and per child, it was 8.79 × 10–5. The study’s radon concentration was lower than the benchmark of 11.1 Bq/L established in 1991 by the Nigerian Standard Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results of this study indicate that the level of radon is safe; as a result, people can continue farming and other activities. To reduce the risk of cancer, however, more research could be done in the area. Further research should be done by looking at additional sources in the study area in order to cover the entire zone. Further investigation should be carried out both during the dry and wet seasons because radon concentrations in groundwater alter over time due to dilution by recharge from rainfall.


Ingestion, Inhalation, Irrigation, Radon, Yearly effective dose, Excess lifetime cancer risk


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How to Cite

Bako, A. S., Rilwan, U., Umar, I., Yusuf, S. D., Mustapha, I. M., Mundi, A. A., & Maina, I. (2023). Toxicity of Radon-222 in Groundwater across Keana in Nasarawa, Nigeria. Advances in Geological and Geotechnical Engineering Research, 5(2), 38–49.





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