Hydrogeological Investigations of Paghman Valleys in Kabul, Afghanistan


  • Hafizullah Rasouli

    Department of Geology, Geoscience Faculty, Kabul University, Jamal Mina, Kabul, 1006, Afghanistan

  • Kaltoum Belhassan

    Independent Researcher in Water Environment, Dewsbury, West Yorkshire, WF13 4QP, UK

  • Ashok Vaseashta

    Applied Research Division, International Clean Water Institute Manassas, VA, 20108-0258, USA

    Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies, "D.GHITU" of Technical University of Moldova, Academiei 3/3, Chisinau MD, 2028, Moldova


8 January 2024 | Revised: 22 January 2024 | Accepted: 23 January 2024 | Published Online: 18 February 2024


Paghman valleys are located at the foothills of the Hindu Kush Mountain range (Afghanistan) and consist of dissimilar kinds of valleys with different rocks and sediments. Valleys in this region consist of several types of streams which are clean, due to their filtration at the valley beds. Water resources, such as streams, springs, and rivers are used for drinking, irrigation, and other general-purpose usages. Due to years of regional conflict, the general water infrastructure needs to be upgraded, however since people need water for their day-to-day activities, it is necessary to characterize various sources of water to ensure their safety. Thus, this study aims to estimate the petrographic characteristics of the Paghman valleys and predict the resource suitability of the region through certain analyses: petrographic, gravel, and sieving analysis. The study is important since no such studies exist on this subject for this region, because of decades of war and much work remains to be done due to an ever-increasing population accompanied by air pollution which may affect the water resources of the region and thus causing health problems for people. The results provided through this investigation provide some preliminary quantification of heavy and light minerals, mechanical analysis, pH determination, electrical conductivity, and Cation and Anion concentrations of heavy and light minerals in water. Furthermore, as the regional population is steadily increasing, the authors highlight policy recommendations for a range of mitigation measures for the relevant authorities to keep water and soil quality within a safe range.


Paghman Valleys, Petrography, Gravel analysis, Sieving, Water flows, Afghanistan


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How to Cite

Rasouli, H., Belhassan, K., & Vaseashta, A. (2024). Hydrogeological Investigations of Paghman Valleys in Kabul, Afghanistan. Advances in Geological and Geotechnical Engineering Research, 6(1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.30564/agger.v6i1.6203