Comparative Toxicity of Neem and Peppermint Oils Nano Formulations against Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) Larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)


  • Nadia Z. Dimetry Department of Pests and Plant Protection, National Research Centre, El-Bohouth St., Dokki, Cairo, 12622, Egypt
  • Amin A.H Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, 12622, Egypt
  • Bayoumi A.E Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, 12622, Egypt
  • Abdel-Raheem M. A. Department of Pests and Plant Protection, National Research Centre, El-Bohouth St., Dokki, Cairo, 12622, Egypt
  • Youssef Dalia A. Department of Pests and Plant Protection, National Research Centre, El-Bohouth St., Dokki, Cairo, 12622, Egypt



Applications of nanotechnology in agriculture will result in the development of efficient and potential approaches towards the management of insect pests. The toxicity effects of four essential oils peppermint, thyme, camphor and sage oils were tested against the fourth instar larvae of Agrotis ipsilon to select the most effective essential oil to be converted to the nano form. According to the results obtained, peppermint oil was the most toxic compound, which has been used in the present investigation  compared  with neem oil. The toxicity of  bulk and nano- formulations of neem  and pepper mint oils were tested  against  2nd and 4th instar  larvae of A. ipsilon under laboratory conditions of 25±2 °C& 65 -70 % R.H.relative humidity The results show that the LC50 value (the concentration used which kill 50% of the tested individuals)of loaded neem or pepper mint were lower (0.62 and 36.47 ppm) compared with neem or pepper mint oil nano-emulsion and bulk neem for the second larval instar. The different formulations of neem are more potent than in case of peppermint oil, as LC50 and LC90 values were significantly lower.The same trend was found concerning the 4th larval instar. Age of treated larvae had a detrimental effect on the response to the compounds tested. It was noticed that the younger larvae were much more sensitive to the prepared compounds compared to the older ones. The least LC50 value for loaded neem nano-emulsion was 6.68 ppm compared with the highest value for  bulk neem oil (16.68 ppm ). Also,  LC90  values followed the same trend as in  case ofLC50.  Again, the toxicity of loaded peppermint oil had the most insecticidal activity as expressed by the lowest LC50 value (51.9 ppm) with more insecticidal effect than the bulk(125.43 ppm)  or nano-emulsion (85.43 ppm).  The present results indicated that these novel systems could be used in integrated pest management program for A. ipsilon control.


Agrotis ipsilon larvae, Toxicity, Neem, Pepper mint oil, Nano formulations


[1] Boughton, A.J.; L.C. Lewis and B.C. Bonning, “Potential of Agrotis ipsilon Nucleopolyhedrovirus for Suppression of the Black Cutworm(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Effect of an Optical Brightener onVirus Efficacy”. J Econ Entomol, 2001, 94(5): 1045- 1052.

[2] El-Salamouny, S.; M. Lange; M. Jutzi; J. Huber and J.A. Jehle, “Comparative study on susceptibility of cutworms (Lepidoptera :Noctuidae) to Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus and Agrotis ipsilon nucleopolyhedrovirus”. J Invert Pathol., 2003, 84(2): 75- 82.

[3] Hong, S.C. and R.C. Williamson, “Comparison of sticky wing and cone henomena traps for monitoring seasonal abundance of black cutworm adults and larvae on golf courses”. J Econ Entomol., 2004, 97(5): 1666-1670.

[4] Muhammad, S.; U. Farman; N. Muhammad; A. Muhammad; A.U.R. Saljoqi and Z. Muhammad, “Effect of various insecticides for the controlof Potato cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon Huf., Noctuidae:lepidoptera) atkalam swat.” Sahad J Agric.,2007, 23(2): 423-426.

[5] Amoabeng, B.W.; G.M. Gurr; C.W. Gitau; H.I. Nicol; L. Munyakazi and P.C. Stevenson , “Tri-Trophic Insecticidal Effects of African Plants against Cabbage Pests” Plos one, 2013, 8 (10): 1371-1382.

[6] Isman MB and Machial CM, “Pesticides based on plant essential oils: from traditional practice to commercialization. In: Advances in phytomedicine: naturally occurring bioactive compounds.” M. Rai and M.C. Carpinella, Eds. Elsevier, New York, 2006.

[7] Schmutterer, H., “Properties and potential of natural pesticides from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica” Annu. Rev. Entomol., 1990, 35: 271–297.

[8] Jacobson, M., Proc. 3rd Ins. Neem Conf. Nairobi, 1986: 33-44. “Botanical Insecticides Past, Present and Future. In: PhilogeneBJR, Morand P, (Eds.), Insecticidal of Plant Origin”. Am Chem Soc Symp Ser, No. 387, Washington, DC.

[9] Saxena, R.C., “Insecticides from Neem. In: Insecticides of plant origin”. Arnason, J. T.; Philogene, B.J.R. and Morand, P. (Eds). American Chemical Society, Washington. 1989: 110-135.

[10] Dimetry, N.Z.. “Prospects of botanical pesticides for the future in integrated pest management programme (IPM) with special reference to neem uses in Egypt”. Arch. Phytopathol. Plant Protec., 2012, 45: 1138 -1161.

[11] Sharaby, A. and A. El-Nojiban, “Evaluation of some plant essential oils against the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon.” Global journal of advanced research, 2015, 2 (4): 701-711.

[12] Kamaraj, C.; P. R. Gandhi; G. Elango; S. Karthi; M. Chunge and G. Rajakumar , “Novel and environmental friendly approach; Impact of Neem (Azadirachta indica) gum nano formulation (NGNF) on Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) and Spodoptera litura (Fab.)”. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2018, 107: 59-69.

[13] Ghormade, V.; V. D. Mukund and M.P. Kishore, “Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants”. Biotech. Adv., 2011, 29: 792–803.

[14] Mehyar, G. F.; Z. Liu and J.H. Han. “Dynamics of antimicrobial hydrogels in physiological saline”. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2008, 74: 92–98.

[15] Fernandez-Perez, M., Gonzalez-Pradas, E., Villafranca-Sanchz, M and Flores- Ceispedes, F.. “Mobility of isoproturon from an alginate- bentonite controlled release formulation in layered soil”. Chemosphere. 2000, 41: 1495 – 1501.

[16] Guenther, E.. “The essential oils.” Vol(4) Von Nostanand con. N. York. 1961: 132-147.

[17] Shorey, H.H. and R.L. Hale, “Mass rearing of the larvae of nine Noctuide species on a simple artificial medium”. J. Econ. Entomol., 1965, 58: 522-524.

[18] Abbott, W. S.. “A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide”. J. Econ. Entomol. 1925, 18: 265 – 267.

[19] Finney, D.J., “Probit Analysis. Cambridge University”, Press, London, 1971: 333.

[20] Jerobin, J.; R.S. Sureshkumar; C.H. Anjali; A. Mukherjee and N.Chandrasekaran, “Biodegradable polymer based encapsulation of neem oil nano-emulsion for controlled release of Aza-A”. Carbohydrate Polymers., 2012, 90: 1750– 1756.

[21] Youssef, Dalia A.; Bayoumi, A.E.; Dimetry, N.Z.; Amin,A.H. and Hoballah,E.M., “Evaluating Effect of Pepper Mint Oil (Mentha pipreta) and its NanoFormulations on some Enzymatic Activities and Bionomics of Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera littoralis( Boisd.)” Arab Univ., J. Agric Sci., Cairo, Special Issue, 2018, 26 (2C): 1977- 1991.

[22] Lertsutthiwong, P.; K. Noomun; N. Jongaroonngamsang; P. Rojsitthisak U. and Nimmannit , “Preparation of alginate nanocapsules containing turmeric oil”. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2008, 74: 209–214.

[23] Bouchemal, K.; Briançon, S.; Perrier, E. and Fessi, H.. “Nano-emulsion formulation using spontaneous emulsification: solvent, oil and surfactant optimization”. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2004, 280: 241–251.

[24] Anjali, C.H.; Y. Sharma; A. Mukherjee and N. Chandrasekaran, “Neem oil (Azadirachta indica) nanoemulsion as potent larvicidal agent against Culex quinquefasciatus”. Pest Manag Sci, 2012, 68(2): 158–63.

[25] Anjali CH, Khan SS, Margulis- Goshen K, Magdassi S, Mukherjee A. and Chandrasekaran N. “Formulation of water- dispersible nanopermethrin for larvicidal applications” .Ecotox Environ Safe, 2010, 73: 1932 – 1936.

[26] Kumar, R.S.S.; P.J. Shiny; C.H. Anjali; J. Jerobin; K.M. Goshen, S. Magdassi; A. Mukherjee and N. Chandrasekaran, “Distinctive effects of nano-sized permethrin in the environment”. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 2013, 20 (4): 2593–2602.

[27] Hussein, N.; M. Hussein, M.I.; GadelHak, S.H. and Hammad, M.A.. “Effect of two plant extracts and four aromatic oils on Tuta absoluta population and productivity of tomato cultivar gold stone”. Nat. Sci., 2014, 12 (7): 108 -118.

[28] Kostyukovsky, M.; A. Rafaeli; C. Gileadi; N. Demchenko and E. Shaaya, “Activation of octopaminergic receptors by essential oil constituents isolated from aromatic plants: possible mode of activity against insect pests”. Pest Manag. Sci., 2002, 58 (11): 1101-1106.

[29] Souguir, S.; I. Chaieb; Z. Ben Cheikh and A. Laarif, “Insecticidal activities of essential oils from some cultivated aromatic plants against Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)”. J. plant prot. Res., 2013, 53 (4): 388-3911.

[30] Stroh, J.; M.T. Wan; M.B. Isman and D.J. Moul. “Evaluation of the acute toxicity of Juvenile Pacific cohoSamon and rainbow trout of some plant essential oils, a formulated product and the carrier”. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 1998, 60: 923-930.

[31] Koul, O.; J.S. Maltani; G. Singh; W.M. Daniewski and S. Berlizercki, “6- beta-hydroxy gedunin from azadirachtin limonoids in neem against lepidopteran larvae”. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2013, 51 (10): 2937 -2942.

[32] Badawy, M.E.I., S.A.A. EI-Arami and S.A.M. Abdelgaleil, “Acaricidal and quantitative structure activity relationship of monoterpenes against the two spotted spider mite”. Exper. Appl. Acarol., 2010, 52: 261–274.




How to Cite

Dimetry, N. Z., A.H, A., A.E, B., M. A., A.-R., & Dalia A., Y. (2019). Comparative Toxicity of Neem and Peppermint Oils Nano Formulations against Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) Larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Botanical Research, 1(1), 13–19.





Download data is not yet available.