Antecedents of Microblogging Users' Purchase Intention Toward Ce-lebrities' Merchandise: Perspectives of Virtual Community and Fan Economy1077
Impact of Levels of Education on Perceived Academic Stress and Mental Wellbeing: An Investigation into Online Mode of Learning during Pandemic865
Current Evidence and Diverse Perspectives on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review842
Psychological Health of Wives’ of Patients with Chronic Illnesses
Objectives: Chronic illnesses are more prevalent in males. The expectations of caregiving, thus falls on the women. Role expectations from women, increases stress, strain and the possibility of Psychological health concerns. In this paper, we explore the psychological health, as well as the levels of marital and sexual satisfaction of women caregivers.
Method: The sample consisted of 35 women, whose husbands were diagnosed with, and undergoing treatment for a chronic illness (Coronary Heart Disease (CHD); Diabetes; or Cancer). Three standardized questionnaires, the Index of Marital Satisfaction (IMS), Index of Sexual Satisfaction (ISS) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21) were used.
Results: Correlational and predictive analysis were conducted on the data. Clinically significant marital and sexual dissatisfaction were found. Wives’ also reported moderate levels of depression and anxiety, but severe levels of stress. Depression and Sexual satisfaction were found to be significant predictors of marital satisfaction.
Discussion: Women caregiver are impacted by the illness status of their spouse. The additional stress of caregiving, along with societally ascribed roles and responsibilities on women creates a more difficult, stressful environment, which affects psychological health and well-being.
Keywords:Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Wives’, Caregivers, Chronic Illness
 Pinquart, M., Sorensen, S., 2001 Jul 1. Gender Differences in Self-Concept and Psychological Well-Be-ing in Old Age: A Meta-Analysis. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 56(4), 195-213.
 Davis, M.C., Matthews, K.A., Twamley, E.W., 1999 Mar. Is life more difficult on mars or venus? A meta-analytic review of sex differences in major and minor life events. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 21(1), 83-97.
 Barusch, A.S., Spaid, W.M., 1989 Oct 1. Gender Differences in Caregiving: Why Do Wives Report Greater Burden? The Gerontologist. 29(5), 667-76.
 Ross, C.E., 1987 Mar. The Division of Labor at Home. Social Forces. 65(3), 816.
 Gilligan, C., 1982. In a different voice: psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge; London: Harvard University Press.
 Stenberg, U., Ruland, C.M., Miaskowski, C., 2009 Dec 14. Review of the literature on the effects of caring for a patient with cancer. Psycho-Oncology. 19(10), 1013-25.
 Pinquart, M., Sorensen, S., 2006 Jan 1. Gender Differences in Caregiver Stressors, Social Resources, and Health: An Updated Meta-Analysis. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 61(1), P33-45.
 Vitaliano, P.P., Zhang, J., Scanlan, J.M., 2003. Is Caregiving Hazardous to One’s Physical Health? A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin. 129(6), 946- 72.
 Pinquart, M., Sörensen, S., 2003. Differences between caregivers and noncaregivers in psychological health and physical health: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging. 18(2), 250-67.
 Pearlin, L.I., Mullan, J.T., Semple, S.J., Skaff, M.M., 1990 Oct 1. Caregiving and the Stress Process: An Overview of Concepts and Their Measures. The Gerontologist. 30(5), 583-94.
 Mohan, S., Reddy, S., 2014. Chronic diseases in India: Burden and implications. [Internet]. cgd.swissre. com. [cited 2016 Sep 23]. Available from: http://cgd.swissre.com/risk_dialogue_magazine/Cardiovascular_risks_in_HGM/Chronic_Diseases_in_India_Burden_and_Implications.html.
 Patel, V., Chatterji, S., Chisholm, D., Ebrahim, S., Gopalakrishna, G., Mathers, C., et al., 2011. Chronic diseases and injuries in India. The Lancet. 377(9763), 413-28.
 Mohan, S., Reddy, K.S., Prabhakaran, D., 2011. Chronic non-communicable diseases in India: reversing the tide [Internet]. www.indiaenvironmentportal. org.in. Public Health Foundation of India; [cited 2017 Sep 16]. Available from: http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/content/342456/chronic-non-communicable-diseases-in-india-reversing-the-tide/.
 World Health Organization, 2005. WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data [Internet]. [cited 2017 Mar 7]. Available from: http://www.who.int/chp/chronic_disease_report/full_report.pdf.
 World Health Organization, 2018. Noncommunicable diseases country profiles 2018. [cited 2016 Sep 16]; Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/274512.
 Noncommunicable Diseases Country Profiles 2014 [Internet]. World Health Organization; 2014 [cited 2015 Jun 12]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/128038/1/.
 Riley, L., Cowan, M. Noncommunicable Diseases Country Profiles 2014 [Internet]. World Health Organization; [cited 2015 Jun 12]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/128038/1/.
 Revenson, T.A., 1994. Social support and marital coping with chronic illness. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 16(2), 122-30.
 Porto, R., 2013 Jul. The impact of premature ejaculation on quality of life of the patient, the partner and the couple. Sexologies. 22(3), e65-70.
 Koran, L.M., 2000. Quality of life in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sexologies. 22(3), 509-17.
 Lewis, R.A., Spanier, G.B., 1979. Theorizing about the quality and stability of marriage. Contemporary theories about the family: research-based theories/ edited by Wesley R Burr[et al]. 268-94.
 Cohen, D., Eisdorfer, C., 2002. The loss of self: a family resource for the care of Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
 Townsend, A.L., Franks, M.M., 1997 Jan. Quality of the Relationship between Elderly Spouses: Influence on Spouse Caregivers’ Subjective Effectiveness. Family Relations. 46(1), 33-9.
 Thoman-Touet, S.K., 1992. A qualitative study of the effect of chronic illness on marital quality [PhD Thesis]. Iowa State University. Available from: https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/rtd/10156/.
 Pruchno, R.A., Potashnik, S.L., 1989 Aug. Caregiving Spouses Physical and Mental Health in Perspective. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 37(8), 697-705.
 Sheehan, N.W., Nuttall, P., 1988 Jan. Conflict, Emotion, and Personal Strain among Family Caregivers. Family Relations. 37(1), 92-8.
 Min, J., Yorgason, J.B., Fast, J., Chudyk, A. The Impact of Spouse’s Illness on Depressive Symptoms: The Roles of Spousal Caregiving and Marital Satisfaction. The Journals of Gerontology Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences [Internet]. 2020 Aug 13 [cited 2021 Jan 17];75(7):1548-57. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30869140/#:~:text=Spousal%20caregiving%20and%20marital%20satisfaction%20were%20significant%20moderators%3A%20Wives%20caring.
 Zhou, E.S., Kim, Y., Rasheed, M., Benedict, C., Bustillo, N.E., Soloway, M., et al., 2010 Oct 5. Marital satisfaction of advanced prostate cancer survivors and their spousal caregivers: the dyadic effects of physical and mental health. Psycho-Oncology. 20(12), 1353-7.
 Fitzpatrick, K.E., Vacha-Haase, T., 2010 May 28. Marital Satisfaction and Resilience in Caregivers of Spouses with Dementia. Clinical Gerontologist. 33(3), 165-80.
 Akbari, F., Dehghani, M., 2017. Pain in the context of family: A study on factors contributing to marital satisfaction among couples suffering from chronic pain. Iranian journal of public health. 46(7), 946.
 Beach, S.R.H., Katz, J., Kim, S., Brody, G.H., 2003 Jun. Prospective Effects of Marital Satisfaction on Depressive Symptoms in Established Marriages: A Dyadic Model. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. 20(3), 355-71.
 Whisman, M.A., Uebelacker, L.A., 2009. Prospective associations between marital discord and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Psychology and Aging. 24(1), 184-9.
 Davila, J., Bradbury, T.N., Cohan, C.L., Tochluk, S., 1997. Marital functioning and depressive symptoms: Evidence for a stress generation model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 73(4), 849-61.
 Beach, S.R.H., Arias, I., O’Leary, K.D., 1986 Dec. The relationship of marital satisfaction and social support to depressive symptomatology. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. 8(4), 305-16.
 Beach, S.R.H., O’Leary, K.D., 1986 Jan. The treatment of depression occurring in the context of marital discord. Behavior Therapy. 17(1), 43-9.
 Weissman, M.M., 1987 Apr. Advances in psychiatric epidemiology: rates and risks for major depression. American Journal of Public Health. 77(4), 445-51.
 Beach, S.R.H., Sandeen, E., O'leary, K.D., Barlow, D.H., 1990. Depression in marriage : a model for etiology and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.
 Foa, E., Grayson, J., Steketee, G., 1982. Depression, habituation and treatment outcome in obsessive-compulsives. In: Boulougouris J, editor. Practical applications of learning theories in psychiatry. New York: Wiley.
 Foa, E., Grayson, J., Steketee, G., Doppelt, H., 1983. Treatment of obsessive-compulsives: When do we fall? In: Foa E, Emmelkamp P, editors. Failures in Behavior therapy. New York: Wiley.
 Tuinman, M.A., Fleer, J., Sleijfer, D., Hoekstra, H., Hoekstra-Weebers, J., 2005 Jan 20. Marital and sexual satisfaction in testicular cancer survivors and their spouses. Supportive Care in Cancer. 13(7), 540-8.
 Sampson, R.J., Laub, J.H., Wimer, C., 2006 Aug. Does Marriage Reduce crime? a Counterfactual Approach to Within-individual Causal Effects. Criminology. 44(3), 465-508.
 Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., Newton, T.L., 2001. Marriage and health: His and hers. Psychological Bulletin. 127(4), 472-503.
 Couper, J., Bloch, S., Love, A., Macvean, M., Duchesne, G.M., Kissane, D., 2006. Psychosocial adjustment of female partners of men with prostate cancer: a review of the literature. Psycho-Oncology. 15(11), 937-53.
 Weihs, K., Enright, T., Howe, G., Simmens, S.J., 1999 Jul 29. Marital Satisfaction and Emotional Adjustment After Breast Cancer. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology. 17(1), 33-49.
 Haavio-Mannila, E., Kontula, O., 1997. Correlates of increased sexual satisfaction. Archives of sexual behavior. 26(4), 399-419.
 Lawrance, K., Byers, E., 1995 Dec. Sexual satisfaction in long-term heterosexual relationships: The interpersonal exchange model of sexual satisfaction. Personal Relationships. 2(4), 267-85.
 Edwards, J., Booth, A., 1994. Sexuality, marriage, and well-being: The middle years. In: Rossi A, editor. Sexuality across the life course. Chicago: University of Chicage Press.
 Hafstrom, J.L., Schram, V.R., 1984 Jan. Chronic Illness in Couples: Selected Characteristics, including Wife’s Satisfaction with and Perception of Marital Relationships. Family Relations. 33(1), 195.
 Eriksson, E., Wejåker, M., Danhard, A., Nilsson, A., Kristofferzon, M.L., 2019 Apr 23. Living with a spouse with chronic illness - the challenge of balancing demands and resources. BMC Public Health. 19(1).
 Schulz, R., Sherwood, P.R., 2008 Sep. Physical and Mental Health Effects of Family Caregiving. Journal of Social Work Education. 44(3), 105-13.
How to Cite
Copyright © 2022 Daanesh Marazban Umrigar, Rajendra Mhaske
This is an open access article under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License.