Impact of the Wellness on the Hesitancy on the Omicron Vaccination


  • Satvika Marrapu

    College of Information, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76205, USA

  • Willam D Senn

    College of Business, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX 76401, USA

  • Victor Prybutok

    G. Brint Ryan College of Business, University of North Texas , Denton, 75063, USA



The emergence of the Omicron variant has posed significant challenges to the effectiveness of existing vaccines and antibody-based therapies in combating COVID-19. This systematic literature review examines the impact of wellness on vaccine hesitancy related to the Omicron variant. The review explores various factors influencing vaccine hesitancy, including demographic characteristics, health literacy, historical mistrust, and misinformation. The research investigates the role of clear and consistent messaging, trust-building measures, and collaboration among stakeholders in addressing vaccine hesitancy. The findings indicate that a considerable percentage of the population expresses vaccine hesitancy, particularly among younger individuals and females. The review concludes by discussing the implications of parental attitudes towards vaccinating children, the impact of confidence and collective responsibility, and the influence of various antecedents on vaccine hesitancy. The findings provide valuable insights for policymakers, healthcare professionals, and public health authorities to design effective strategies to address vaccine hesitancy and enhance vaccination rates, thus mitigating the impact of the Omicron variant and future variants.


Wellness, Hesitancy, COVID-19, Coronavirus, Omicron, Vaccination


[1] Peters, M.D., 2022. Addressing vaccine hesitancy and resistance for COVID-19 vaccines. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 131, 104241. DOI:

[2] Daems, R., Maes, E., 2022. The race for COVID-19 vaccines: accelerating innovation, fair allocation and distribution. Vaccines. 10(9), 1450. DOI:

[3] Pierz, A.J., Rauh, L., Masoud, D., et al., 2023. Supporting US healthcare providers for successful vaccine communication. BMC Health Services Research. 23, 423. DOI:

[4] Haque, A., Pant, A.B., 2022. Mitigating Covid-19 in the face of emerging virus variants, breakthrough infections and vaccine hesitancy. Journal of Autoimmunity. 127, 102792. DOI:

[5] Dhama, K., Nainu, F., Frediansyah, A., et al., 2023. Global emerging Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2: Impacts, challenges and strategies. Journal of Infection and Public Health. 16(1), 4–14. DOI:

[6] Sanz-Leon, P., Hamilton, L.H., Raison, S.J., et al., 2022. Modelling herd immunity requirements in Queensland: Impact of vaccination effectiveness, hesitancy and variants of SARS-CoV-2. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 380(2233), 20210311. DOI:

[7] Zhang, H., Li, Y., Peng, S., et al., 2022. The effect of health literacy on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among community population in China: The moderating role of stress. Vaccine. 40(32), 4473–4478. DOI:

[8] Islam, F., Dhawan, M., Nafady, M.H., et al., 2022. Understanding the omicron variant (B. 1.1. 529) of SARS-CoV-2: Mutational impacts, concerns, and the possible solutions. Annals of Medicine and Surgery. 78. DOI:

[9] Zheng, Z., Lu, Y., Wang, M., et al., 2023. Low COVID‐19 vaccine coverage and guardian acceptance among pediatric transplant recipients. Journal of Medical Virology. 95(1), e28377. DOI:

[10] Noor, A., Khan, S., Rafaqat, U., et al., 2023. Effect of conspiracy beliefs on Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy: Moderating role of existential anxiety and spiritual wellbeing in adults. Nature-Nurture Journal of Psychology. 3(1).

[11] Majee, W., Anakwe, A., Onyeaka, K., et al., 2023. The past is so present: Understanding COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among African American adults using qualitative data. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. 10, 462–474.

[12] Mohapatra, R.K., Kuppili, S., Kumar Suvvari, T., et al., 2022. SARS‐CoV‐2 and its variants of concern including Omicron: A never ending pandemic. Chemical Biology & Drug Design. 99(5), 769–788. DOI:

[13] Alcendor, D.J., Matthews-Juarez, P., Smoot, D., et al., 2023. Vaccine confidence and uptake of the omicron bivalent booster in Tennessee: Implications for vulnerable populations. Vaccines. 11(5), 906. DOI:

[14] Wegwarth, O., Mansmann, U., Zepp, F., et al., 2023. Vaccination intention following receipt of vaccine information through interactive simulation vs text among COVID-19 vaccine–hesitant adults during the omicron wave in Germany. JAMA Network Open. 6(2), e2256208. DOI:

[15] Chen, X., Huang, H., Ju, J., et al., 2022. Impact of vaccination on the COVID-19 pandemic in US states. Scientific Reports. 12, 1554. DOI:

[16] Aljamaan, F., Alhaboob, A., Saddik, B., et al., 2022. In-person schooling amidst children’s COVID-19 vaccination: Exploring parental perceptions just after Omicron variant announcement. Vaccines. 10(5), 768. DOI:

[17] AlJamaan, F., Temsah, M.H., Alhasan, K., et al., 2022. SARS-CoV-2 variants and the global pandemic challenged by vaccine uptake during the emergence of the Delta variant: A national survey seeking vaccine hesitancy causes. Journal of Infection and Public Health. 15(7), 773–780. DOI:

[18] Zhou, Y., Li, G.X., Zhao, T.S., et al., 2023. Parents’ willingness to vaccinate themselves and their children with the booster vaccine against SARS‐CoV‐2: A cross‐sectional study in Puyang city, China. Journal of Medical Virology. 95(1), e28256. DOI:

[19] Huang, L. L., Yang, Y. P., Mao, H. P., Hu, W. W., Jiang, Y. H., Jiesisibieke, Z. L., & Tung, T. H. (2022). Parental hesitancy towards vaccinating their children with a booster dose against COVID-19: Real-world evidence from Taizhou, China. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 15(9), 1006–1012. DOI:

[20] Kitro, A., Sirikul, W., Dilokkhamaruk, E., et al., 2022. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and influential factors among Thai parents and guardians to vaccinate their children. Vaccine: X. 11, 100182. DOI:

[21] Alenezi, S., Alarabi, M., Al-Eyadhy, A., et al., 2022. Parental perceptions and the 5C psychological antecedents of COVID-19 vaccination during the first month of omicron variant surge: A large-scale cross-sectional survey in Saudi Arabia. Frontiers in Pediatrics. 10, 944165. DOI:

[22] Hu, T., Li, L., Lin, C., et al., 2022. An analysis of the willingness to the COVID-19 vaccine booster shots among urban employees: evidence from a megacity H in Eastern China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 19(4), 2300. DOI:

[23] Parimi, K., Gilkeson, K., Creamer, B.A., 2022. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy: Considerations for reluctance and improving vaccine uptake. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 18(5), 2062972. DOI:

[24] Galanis, P., Vraka, I., Katsiroumpa, A., et al., 2022. Predictors of willingness of the general public to receive a second COVID-19 booster dose or a new COVID-19 vaccine: A cross-sectional study in Greece. Vaccines. 10(7), 1061. DOI:


How to Cite

Marrapu, S., Willam D Senn, & Victor Prybutok. (2024). Impact of the Wellness on the Hesitancy on the Omicron Vaccination. Journal of Psychological Research, 6(2), 1–13.